Before Islam, Arabia was inhabited by nomadic peoples and had small village based agricultural developments. It was next to two other powerful civilizations and thus did not play a big role. However, once Islam was adopted, it rapidly spread to large parts of Asia, Africa, and even Europe. I argue that between 622 and 1450, Islam spread throughout the Middle East and other parts of the world through trade and military conquest. However, after its spread, its ideas were changed to fit the already present belief systems of the people living there.
The Rise of Colonialism in Africa Between 1870 and 1900, Europe set out to colonize Africa for their raw materials. Africa was up against invasions of Europe's military and diplomatic pressures. This did not happen without a fight, and Africans were not happy about this attempt to be colonized. With the exception of Ethiopia and Liveria, Africa had been colonized by Europe by the early twentieth century. Europe wanted to set up and colonize in Africa, mainly because of Africa's raw materials it was purely economic.
Document 4 says that not only were they unable to keep up the utilities, they didn’t have skilled administrators to govern their new independent nations. This shows, in a way, that colonialism actually benefited the Africans by giving them security and stability, and by making use of their resources which otherwise would have been undetected and undeveloped. But, it would be wrong to suggest that imperialism was very positive for Africans. Many African men were killed and overworked, as described in Document 6. This left Africa with a reduced supply of capable workers and leaders when they became independent.
Another thing was that Islam promoted more equalitarian social arrangements that were new and attractive to the Indians. West Africa, experienced both the cultural influence of Islam and its own internal state building, for example, it civilizations had new developments that produced, in some places, great artistic accomplishments. In Africa, the spread of Islam empowered many things. For one Islam provided new influences and contacts without uniting the African cultures The spread of Islam across much of the northern third of Africa produced intense effects on those who converted and those who were against the new faith. Islam also linked Africa more closely to the outside world through trade, religion, and politics.
How far do you agree that changing attitudes to Empire within Britain explain both expansion and the dismantling of British imperial power in Africa? The British Empire began to expand into Africa in 1880 and by 1913 the empire had control over 458 million people and 25% of the world's land. However by 1981 the British Empire had come to an end after it could no longer afford the maintenance of such a big Empire. British involvement in Africa was a period that saw many changes, some economic, some international and political changes, which in turn led to many adjustments in Africa itself. In turn these changes affected attitudes of the British government and public opinion and undoubtedly influenced key decisions about both expansion and dismantlement in Africa.
To what extend was the colonisation and decolonisation of Britain’s Africa driven by individuals within Africa? Before the 1870’s Africa was largely unknown to the outside world but, in the 1880’s the scramble of Africa began, where European counties, especially Britain all wanted to colonise Africa. Was the whole reason for British colonising Africa economically or strategically driven or was it led by individuals in Africa (men on the spot) or was it more of a top down process led by the government in Britain? And even though Britain fought so hard to control large parts of Africa it is clear that after World II Britain’s empire was declining especially after India gain independence in 1947. However, the British did try to revive their African empire in the late 40’s and early 50’s but their sudden fall into a steep imperial decline with the Suez crises saw individuals like Macmillan to acknowledge that decolonisation was the only way forward, as it would be more beneficial for Britain to decolonise than to resist the rise of nationalism.
When the desiccation of the Sahara began in 5000 B.C.E., the peoples of the Sahara were forced to move somewhere habitable, and they migrated eastward toward the Nile valley. “Guns, Germs, and Steel” shows also how the changing climate affected development. The peoples in the region of the Black Sea had land they used to farm, but it eventually became unserviceable. They gradually moved into central Europe or Asia. Interaction and exchange in Africa also played a major role in development.
Many Somalis have fled Somalia to seek a better life in western countries. Somalis reside in Britain, most of Europe, America, Canada, Australia and the list is onwards. Somalia needs rebuilding from the reconstruction of rule of law to changing the pattern of societies behaviour. After the colonies Somalis built the country voluntarily which was driven by patriotism and the modern Somalis lack this patriotic drive. The human life has lost its importance in Somali and if this is not changed it will affect the future of Somalia.
African exports consisted primarily of gold, ivory, and pepper. However, over 175,000 slaves were also taken to Europe and the Americas during this period. In 1600, with the involvement of the Dutch and English, the magnitude of the slave trade grew exponentially. From the time of their arrival on the shores of Sierra Leone in 1460, and until their gradual decline as leaders in world exploration in the sixteenth century, the Portuguese had an ambiguous relationship with their African trading partners. Disembarking at cities that were equally large, complex, and technologically advanced as Lisbon at the time, the Portuguese actually experienced far less culture shock than we might
Things Fall Apart. The Igbo Culture Introduction The masterpiece by Achebe, Things Fall Apart, depicts a society with a primitive lifestyle. With an unbiased point of view, he narrates, and calls everything as he sees it through his novel. Igbo culture, like any other culture, had to grapple with tremendous changes that the wave of colonialism came with. The outcome of the Igbo cultural system was dependent on how they welcomed these changes that swept across the African content, Nigeria included.