While fringe members were more inclined to recognize that they had made fools of themselves and to put it down to experience, committed members were more likely to re-interpret the evidence to show that they were right all along. When someone is forced to do something they really don't want to do, dissonance is created between their cognition and their behavior. Forced compliance occurs when an individual performs an action that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs. The behavior can't be changed, since it is already in the past, so dissonance will need to be reduced by re-evaluating their attitude to what they have done. This prediction has been tested
Then every possible alternative is generated and with their impacts evaluated. Finally the optimal alternative would be chosen. This is the conventional process of decision-making suggested by classical theories. Simon, on the other hand, determined that this is not a realistic approach considering decision-making concepts, he argued that decision makes, who are human, is unable to be rational under environmental constraints and human incapacity. Also, these two factors can have impacts on the behaviour and rationality of the decision maker.
Motivating Change There are two related tasks which need attention for this process to be successful. The first is creating readiness for change and the second is overcoming resistance to change. 1. Creating readiness for change - Before people are ready to change they must experience a dissatisfaction with the status quo. There are three methods
Piaget’s idea of social interaction is a mechanism for disrupting equilibrium, and as individuals must adapt their schemes though accommodation and assimilation then cognitive development happens. Piagets believed it was centered on the equilibrium. The scheme modified goes from accommodation and stimulus modified goes to assimilation. Then both go to adaptation and on to the equilibrium. Vygotski believed development results directly from social interactions.
Browne once said "sociological perspectives centre on how much freedom or control the individual had to influence society" He goes on to comment on the two main approaches "structuralism is concerned with the overall structure of society and the way social institutions act as a constraint, or limit and control individual behaviour". Structuralism offers a view of the individual being controlled by the society they live in, Marx and Durkheim are similar in that they can both be described as structuralists, however their individual ideas are somewhat different. Functionalism was developed by Emile Durkheim, he believed like Comte that sociology should be viewed as a precise science and that society should be studied objectively. Durkheim placed an enormous amount of emphasis on social facts which he saw as ways of acting, thinking or feeling that are external to individuals and have their own reality outside the lives and perceptions of individual people. This is known as the macro approach, which places a great emphasis on the structure of society and how an individual operates with that society.
In this assignment, I am going to briefly explore the definitions of Functionalism and Feminism and how their ideologies affect our contemporary societies. In doing so I will give examples that expand upon the definitions and illustrate that such ideologies are evident and still have an impact on the society we live in. FUNCTIONALISM 1) The theory of design that the form of a thing should be determined by its use. 2) Any doctrine that stresses people. (Sourced form the Dictionary) Functionalism is a sociological paradigm that originally attempted to explain social institutions as collective means to fill individual biological needs.
Coping is defined as cognitive and behavioral responses to stress that are aimed at lessening or managing it or it sources. (Lazarus,1984) There are 2 types of coping strategies – problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. People who use problem-focused coping strategy target the problem and attempt to eliminate the problem. They define the problem and control over it, and rehearse the task. On the other hand, people who use emotion-focused coping strategy reduce emotional reaction without attempting to solve the underlying problem.
All of our motivation comes from within. What motivates people to change? Change is one of important events in one’s life. Change can be positive or negative, helps one know more about the world or deter one in the right way. There are a lot of things that motivate people to change.
The two broad, conceptual communicative treatments for implementing change to be discussed are programmatic and participatory. These theoretical approaches will include the strategies, limitations and benefits of using these change implementation approaches. Programmatic Change Communication The primary characteristic of programmatic approaches is that they are focused on “telling” and “selling”. Such approaches emphasize the top-down dissemination of information such as ideas, facts, knowledge and trainings that are concerned with the change, as well as to “tell” employees about the change, delivering in a way to “sell” them on why they should be committed to implementing it (Lewis, Schmisseur, Stephens and Weir, 2006). The logic
Karl Marx was a social theorist from the twentieth century, and he alleges that cause and effect are one of the most social actions that motivate us. He believed that research would help with the explanation of social phenomenon, and so could the non-empirical methods. He also believed that “society could be studied through the meaning and purpose that people attach to actions” (Vissing, 2011, p. 1.3). Karl Marx, in 1818-1883, developed the conflict theory and “argued that it is tension and conflict that motivate us to think and act differently” (Vissing, 2011, p. 1.3). Karl Marx.