Cervical Cancer Essay

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INTRODUCTION Based on the statistics from the World Health Organisation (WHO), more than 200,000 women worldwide die due to cervical cancer each year and at least 4,000 women in the USA die from this disease. Besides that, cervical cancer is the second most common disease that causes death among the women in underdeveloped countries. What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is a disease that affects the neck of the womb, named as cervix [1], in the female reproductive system. Usually, there are no signs in the early stages of cervical cancer. The signs can only be observed as the disease advances, for example, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse, pelvic pain and heavy vaginal discharge. The main cause of cervical cancer is because of uncontrolled abnormal cells division. This results in the formation of tumour, an excessive accumulation of abnormal cells. Several ways, for instance, surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy can be used to treat cervical cancer. However, the methods of treatment used depend on the type and stage of cervical cancer. WHAT IS CERVICAL CANCER? Cervical cancer is a disease or a cancer that affects the cervix of female reproductive system. The cervix is the neck of the uterus that joins the uterus to upper part of the vagina. It is made up of tight muscle that usually close, but with a small orifice to allow the sperm to pass through and the flow of menstrual period. The cervix opens during labour. There are two types of cervical cancer, which are ectocervix and endocervix. Ectocervix is also known as the portiovaginalis. It is the portion of cervix that projects into the vagina. The ectocervix has the dimension of 3 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. The outer surface of ectocervix contains flat cells that can become cancerous and leading to squamous cell [2] cervical cancer. On the other hand, endocervix is the portion

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