(b) Common parts of the brain affected by Cerebral palsy. 1.7 CAUSES OF CEREBRAL PALSY The main cause of cerebral palsy is damage or late development of parietal lobe of the brain which controls the body movements. A child can be affected with CP during the fetal stage or shortly after birth. Major sections of the children are born with congenital cerebral palsy, in which the symptoms may not be detected until the disease is more effective. Acquired cerebral palsy is the condition where the child gets affected after the birth, injuries to the brain at the early stage of the life, infections like meningitis and encephalopathy, brain ischemia, injuries to head and even child abuse are some of the major causes.
Some ideas and theories in science meet with resistance. One of the examples when an idea is meeting with the resistance is immunization. More often children immunization meets with public resistance. As the vaccination of children is parents' decision many decides not to do it. Data published by NHS show that there is high number of measles reported due to 1-16 years old children who missed the vaccinations between 1990s and 2000s.
Dementia with Lewy bodies is closely related to Parkinson's disease and often has some of the same symptoms, including difficulty with movement. Front temporal dementia (including Pick's disease) – In front temporal dementia, the front and side parts of the brain are damaged over time when clumps of abnormal proteins form inside nerve cells, causing them to die. At first, changes in personality and behavior may be the most obvious signs. Depending on where the damage is, the person may have difficulties with fluent speech or may forget the meaning of words or objects. 2) Memory problems are usually the most obvious symptom in people with dementia.
UNIT 4222-365 1.1 Range of causes of dementia Cells in the brain stop working, and the part of the brain that this occurs in will affect how that person thinks, remembers and communicates. The most common forms of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease and Vascular dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is caused by damage in certain areas of the brain. With time, it spreads and affects cells in other parts of the brain. The cause of the brain cells dying and the deterioration of the connectors is not fully known.
As dementia affects a person's mental abilities, they may find planning and organizing difficult. Being independent may also become a problem. A person with dementia will therefore usually need help from friends or relatives, including help with decision making. Most types of dementia can't be cured, but if it is detected early there are ways to slow it down and maintain mental function. Dementia is a collection of symptoms including memory loss, personality change, and impaired intellectual functions resulting from disease or trauma to the brain.
Therefore, aggressive behaviour with other children would be expected, because the child’s parents have failed to form a stable mother-child relationship in his home environment. Infants, like Calum and his sister, who are malnourished may also experience a condition known as ‘non-organic failure to thrive’. This refers to the child’s weight, height and development falling significantly below age-appropriate ranges, without apparent organic cause. Even with treatment, the long-term consequences can include continued growth problems, retardation and socio-emotional deficits (Wallace, 1996). All these factors will have combined to make Calum that which he has become.
Those experiencing hypoglycaemia may exhibit aphasia--the inability to use or understand words. Hypoglycaemia can also produce hemiplegia, the inability to control motor functions, often on just one side of the body. Tumours or masses occurring in the central nervous system or brain can also mimic a stroke. Although masses typically increase in size progressively over time, the onset of symptoms may be sudden, just as a stroke. As the mass impedes on the brain or blood vessels, symptoms such as seizures and speech problems can occur.
However, the brain shows great anatomical differences between individuals and also shows plasticity, with different regions changing their function in response to damage to one area17. The lesion method usually assumes that after a focal lesion, the intact regions of the brain continue to function in the same manner as before the lesion. However, with tasks controlled by distributed and plastic circuits, the brain can start to reconfigure rapidly following damage. This reconfiguration is helpful for recovery, but makes it difficult to infer the original function of the healthy brain The lesion method also faces the challenge of differential vulnerability: some areas of the cortex are particularly likely to be damaged by stroke18. Therefore, the locations of brain damage are not randomly distributed in the brain: the design of the brain, its blood supply and the surrounding skull mean that some regions of the brain are damaged more often than others.
That is why memory loss and is often associated with the early stages of Alzheimer's. As the illness progresses besides the hippocampus the disease attacks other parts of the limbic system, including the amygdala, causing aggression and paranoia later on. As neurons are damaged and destroyed in these areas, there is damage to other cognitive functions such as language skills and the ability to plan, make judgments and perform simple tasks. Dementia is a syndrome a collection of signs and symptoms occurring together and not the name for a single disorder. Vascular dementia is caused by problems in supply of blood to the brain; this is typically caused by a cerebrovascular accident, or stroke.
Neurons and synapses become damaged by dementia they may be unable to carry messages that tell a section of the brain what to do. 1.2. Describe the key functions of the brain that are affected by dementia Frontal lobe - Movement, emotional behaviour, personality, interpretation and feeling. Parietal lobe - Language, special awareness and recognition. Temporal lobe – Long term memory, speech and hearing.