Cerebral Palsy Essay

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Cerebral Palsy Pathophysiology of Cerebral Palsy “Cerebral palsy (CP) is a common pediatric disorder occurring in about 2 to 2.5 per 1000 live births.1” It was first described by orthopedic surgeon named Williams James Little in 1862. A static neurologic condition resulting from brain injury that occurs before cerebral development is complete and can present with physical and mental dysfunction1. “In 2001, the United Cerebral Palsy Foundation estimated that 764,000 children and adults in the United States carried the diagnosis of cerebral palsy. In addition, an estimated 8,000 babies and infants, plus 1,200 to 1,500 pre-school age children are diagnosed with cerebral palsy every year in the United States.2” There are many ways of classifying CP. The etiology of CP can be classified according to the timing of the injury occurring as prenatal (most common), perinatal or postnatal. It can also be classified according to the number and distribution of affected limbs: monoplegia(one limb), hemiplegia(one side of the body), diplegia( both legs), and quadriplegia(entire body). Underlying etiology of CP is unknown in up to 50% of cases. Seventy to 80% CP cases are acquired prenatally and some of the birth complications, including asphyxia, are currently estimated to account for 6% of patients with congenital cerebral palsy. 2 Some of the neonatal risk factors for cerebral palsy include birth after fewer than 32 weeks’ gestation, birth weight of less than 5 lb, 8 oz (2,500 g), intrauterine growth retardation, intracranial hemorrhage, and trauma. Postnataly acquired CP occurs in about 10 to 20% of patients, and is mainly due brain damage from bacterial meningitis, viral encephalitis, hyperbilirubinemia, motor vehicle collisions, falls, or child abuse.1 According to the study3 “Persistent ventricular enlargement is the strongest and most independent risk factor

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