c) How does one nerve cell communicate with another? - Nerve cells communicate with one another through neurotransmitters. 2. a) Explain what neurotransmitters are? - Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing where that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
What do the neurotransmitter molecules do once they are released into the synaptic cleft? As the neurotransmitter chemicals travel across the synaptic cleft, they bind to receptors, such as the ones found on the ligand gated ion channels, on the postsynaptic membrane. 11. Neurotransmitters cause postsynaptic ion channels to open. Explain how this can lead to either a graded potential or a hyperpolarization.
In other words, neurotransmitters are the messages that nerve cells send out, and they cross the gaps between each of the cells. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and neuron. Therefore, they influence whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse or not. B) An agonist mimics neurotransmitters functions by binding to receptor sites and stimulating the sending neuron. C) An antagonist does the opposite of agonist.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the division of the nervous system containing all the nerves that lie outside of the central nervous system (CNS). The primary role of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the organs, limbs and skin. These nerves extend from the central nervous system to the outermost areas of the body. The nerves that make up the peripheral nervous system are actually the axons or bundles of axons from neuron cells. In some cases, these nerves are very small but some nerve bundles are so large that they can be easily seen by the human eye.
Thus, a spatial pattern of neuronal stimulation develops in the medial superior olivary nucleus, with sound from directly in front of the head stimulating one set of olivary neurons maximally and sounds from different side angles stimulating other sets of neurons on opposite sides. This spatial orientation
Clear intro to topic and essay Q The nervous system is the body’s internal electrochemical communications network. Its main parts are the brain, spinal cord and the nerves. The brain and the spinal cord form the central nervous system, which is the body’s chief controlling and coordinating centre and billions of long neurones, many grouped as nerves, make up the peripheral nervous system, transmitting nerve impulses between the central nervous system and other regions of the body. Each neuron has three parts, a cell body, branching dendrites that receive chemical signals from other neurons and a tube-like axon that conveys these signals as electrical impulses. There are two types of neurons: sensory neurons and motor neurons.
Atropine acts as an antagonist within the central nervous system, which means it acts as a blocker of specific cellular functions. What part of the autonomic nervous system does atropine block to produce its effect on Dr. Westwood? Atropine was administered in response to the bradycardia; after it was administered it brought up his blood pressure as well has his heart rate. Within the parasympathetic nervous system, Atropine blocks the muscarinic receptor which then blocks acetylcholine (Ach). Because of the blockage of Ach the muscarinic receptor antagonist can block the vagal nerve from affecting the heart, and can then increase the heart
The peripheral nervous system, also part of the nervous system, transmits information to and from the nervous system. The biological approach also suggests chemical processes in the brain are responsible for many different psychological functioning for example, chemicals such as hormones. Imbalances of certain hormones affect behaviour. The approach states that the female hormone oestrogen gives females caring and gentle characteristics while the male hormone testosterone is linked to aggression. This hormone was investigated by Dabbs et al, where testosterone levels in prisoners where compared to the level of crime committed.
4. A motor neuron conducts a nerve impulse along an efferent pathway from the integration center to an effector. 5. An effector responds to the efferent impulses by contracting (if the effector is a muscle fiber) or secreting a product (if the effector is a gland). Reflexes can be categorized as either autonomic or somatic.
Outline the body’s response to stress (6 marks) There are two types of stress: acute and chronic stress. Acute stress (short-term stress) causes the body to respond through a process called the sympthomedullary pathways. This immediate response is achieved because of the hypothalamus’s direct link to the nervous system which causes the activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). This is a branch from the autonomic nervous system. The SNS also regulates the sympathetic adrenal medullary system (SAM).