There are 3 main processes that comprise respiration: glycolysis; the Krebs cycle; and the respiratory chain. Glucose enters the cell by facilitated diffusion, and glycoloysis then takes place in the cytoplasm. Glucose is phosphorylated (using a phosphate molecule from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) to form glucose phosphate, a compound which can also be used for the synthesis of glycogen elsewhere in the cell. Glucose phosphate is phosphorylated again, and splits into two triose phosphate sugars. Each of these is converted in a number of steps to pyruvate (another 3-carbon sugar), a process that releases some energy, and a hydrogen atom, which is transferred for use in the respiratory chain by the co-enzyme NAD.
The bond between the fatty acid chain and the glycerol is called an ester linkage. The 3 fatty acids may be identical or they may have different structures. In the fatty acid chains the carbon atoms may have single bonds between them making the lipid saturated. These are usually solid at room temperature and are called fats. If one or more bonds between the carbon atoms are double bonds, the lipid is unsaturated.
Catalase is a substance which is produced by the liver to break down hydrogen peroxide. The reaction for the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide is as follows- 2H2O2 (liquid)—catalase --- 2H2O (liquid) + O2 (gas) Hydrogen Peroxide is a clear liquid which is commonly used as bleach and as disinfectants or antiseptic. Even cells in our body produce Hydrogen Peroxide as a part of the Immune system to kill bacteria. In this experiment, the effect of different concentrations of the Hydrogen Peroxide solution on the 2 different types of catalase given was investigated. The paper discs were dipped in the samples given, one being a Yeast solution and the other a Catalase solution.
Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes. Their substances, or the molecules on which they act are organic food molecules which they breakdown by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers. Digestive enzymes can function outside the body cells; their activity can be studied by test tubes (Marieb and Mitchell 2010). This experiment attempts to re-create the breakdown process that is normally done via digestion with Iodine as a vital component. It can be expected that once amylase reacts with the starch, maltose will then be broken down and less starch will be visible and more sugar will be apparent thus causing the solution mixed with iodine to become lighter and lighter.
Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site. This is to allow connection between the enzyme and other molecules called substrates. The shape and chemical makeup of the active site provides an area for part of the substrate to connect with the enzyme. (Farabee, 2010) Part of the active site holds the substrate and part catalyzes the reaction. Some enzymes act on one substrate only, while other enzymes act on a family of related molecules.
C) They all contain one or more double bonds. D) They are a constituent of sterols. E) They are strongly hydrophilic. 2. Storage Lipids Pages: 346-358 Difficulty: 2 Ans: E Which of the following molecules or substances contain, or are derived from, fatty acids?
This is where the reactions occurs. From there the enzyme breaks the bond in the substrate and the enzyme can continue to repeat the process. Catalase is an enzyme found in almost all living organisms. In the human body it is an enzyme that is produced by our liver to break down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Even though hydrogen peroxide is naturally produced by our body as a byproduct of our metabolic process, it is very toxic to our body.
The enzyme of this experiment was the yeast Peroxidase and the substrate of the experiment was hydrogen peroxide which was diluted by water. Hydrogen peroxide is toxis to most living organisms. Many organisms are capable of enzymatically destroying the hydrogen peroxide before it can do much damage. Hydrogen peroxide can be converted to oxygen and water (Masterman, David, and Kelly Redding). In the experiment, the rate of enzyme activity under various conditions such as different enzyme concentrations, pH values, and temperatures will be measured.
Anaerobic Digestion is broken down in 4 steps. These four steps are Hydrolysis, Acidogenesis, Acetogenesi and Methanogenesis. The first stage is hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a process used to break down larger polymers in the presence of water, and often of an acidic catalyst. This is a very essential part of hydrolysis as biomass consists of very large organic molecules and for this process to work efficiently we must break the large particles down into smaller particles.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. It is a special type of distillation. Different types of hydrocarbons are obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum. Cracking is the name given to breaking up large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller and more useful bits. This is achieved by using high pressures and temperatures without a catalyst, or lower temperatures and pressures in the presence of a catalyst.