Cellular Metabolism Essay

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Chapter 4 Cellular Metabolism 4.1 Introduction 1. Define metabolism. (p. 115) Metabolism is the sum total of chemical reactions in the cell. 2. Explain how metabolic pathways are linked and intersect. (p. 115) In many cases, products of one reaction are starting materials for the next. These reactions form cycles and pathways that may intersect where they share intermediate compounds. Each step may be catalyzed by an enzyme. 4.2 Metabolic Processes 3. Distinguish between catabolism and anabolism. (p. 115 Anabolism uses energy to build large molecules from smaller ones. Catabolism releases energy by breaking large molecules into smaller ones. 4. Distinguish between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis. (p. 115) Dehydration synthesis is a special form of anabolism where larger molecules are formed by removing an –OH (hydroxyl group) from the end of one molecule and an –H (hydrogen atom) from the end of another. The –OH and –H combine to form H2O (water), and the ends of the two molecules join by sharing the remaining oxygen atom. Hydrolysis is the opposite of dehydration synthesis. In hydrolysis, a large molecule is split apart at a certain point and a hydrogen atom is attached to one of the new molecules, while a hydroxyl group is attached to the other. Both of these processes can occur over and over until the original molecule is altered to the cell’s needs. In short, dehydration synthesis dehydrates a molecule and hydrolysis rehydrates it. 5. Give examples of a dehydration synthesis reaction and a hydrolysis reaction. (p. 115) Dehydration synthesis joins many simple sugar molecules to form larger molecules of glycogen. Glycerol and fatty acid molecules join to form larger fat molecules. Hydrolysis of a disaccharide yields two monosaccharide molecules. Fats are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. 4.3 Control of Metabolic

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