Cells and Genotype Essay

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Heterozygous genotype is when you have a genotype where the alleles are different ('hetero' means different) i.e. Bb - for eye colour. Since the dominant allele is present it will express the dominant trait but if this individuals mates with another individual who is heterozugous for brown eyes they have a 25% chance of their offspring inheriting blue eyes as a result of mixing of their alleles/different allele combinations in sexual reproduction. Sexual vs asexual reproduction: MAIN POINT TO REMEMBER: Sexual reproduction provides variation in a population WHEREAS: Asexual reproduction provides no variation in a population Notes: - So they are two different types of reproduction that can occur in animals and plants. - Asexual reproduction only requires one parent unlike sexual reproduction that involves 2 parents (we are a product of sexual reproduction). Since asexual reproduction only requires one parent - the offspring are genetically identical (clones) of the parent, this is therefore a fast process and requires less energy. BUT the disadvantage is they all have the same genes and no variation in the population. This means if there is a disease that breaks out in the population and they aren't resistant to it - all will die and the disease is easily spread. - Sexual reproduction provides variation in a population because the offspring are a mix of their parents genetic material. Therefore there will be different forms of traits etc. so if a disease were to break out some individuals may have different traits that are an advantage and resist the disease. Sexual reproduction however takes a long time, produces a small amount of offspring and takes up a lot of energy. 1. Describe DNA and its structure - Double helix - Made up of repeated units of nucleotides - Nucleotides are made up of a base, sugar and phosphate 2. Explain the relationship between

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