When a solution a cell is placed in has more more atoms than the cell has the solution is known as a hypertonic solution while a solution holding less water than the cell it is known as a hypotonic solution. OBJECTIVES: -Diffusion and osmosis move materials from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration -Diffusion and osmosis will move in two directions at the same time -Glucose will move down the concentration gradient
This means that the solutions have the same concentration of solutes. If two solutions differ in the concentration of solutes that each has, the one with more solute is hypertonic. The solution that has less solute it is hypotonic. How do different concentrations of the source affect the rate of osmosis? If the concentration of sucrose is increased in the selective permeable bag, then the rate of the osmosis will also increase.
Testing the reaction rate of fermentation based on alterations in ph solutions. Emily Anderson Abstract The experiment was conducted to determine what effect different ph solutions would have on the reaction rate of yeast fermentation. It was hypothesized that, the more acidic a ph solution, the slower the reaction rate would be in fermentation process. The reaction rate was judged by the amount of co2 displacent formed in the top of the fermentation tubes every five minutes for twenty minutes intervols. Introduction When the oxygen supply runs short in heavy or prolonged exercise, muscles obtain most of their energy from anaerobic process called glycolysis.
For lactose to be absorbed, it must first be split into two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. The glucose and galactose are then absorbed by the cells lining the small intestine. Lactose intolerance is caused by reduced or absent activity of lactase that prevents the splitting of lactose (Marks). The breakdown of milk into its component building blocks allows it to be readily absorbed into our blood streams so its calories from sugars, lactose, proteins, casein, fats, vitamins, and minerals can be used efficiently. Our bodies do not work as hard to digest milk if they were to digest other foods.
Glucose is the most common example of monosaccharide (E.Simon, J.Dinkey & J.Reece 2014). As well as being the most common example monosaccharide, glucose has a chemical formula of C6H12O6 and is a reducing sugar. Glucose is a reducing sugar as it is a monosaccharide sugar that acts as a reducing agent by being able to donate electrons to other molecules that are present, it can also be oxidised by mild oxidizing agents, where the agent is reduced during the reaction (J.Daintith 2008). In the case of the experiment the oxidised substance is the glucose as it is only reducing agent present, the glucose molecules will donate electrons that will be accepted by the oxidising agent being the potassium permanganate. Because the potassium permanganate is being reduced the purple colour it displays will change into clear as the molecule is being reduced in to manganate ions.
Firstly, the determinations for the standard curve are done in duplicate in large test tubes. Secondly, the dilution schemes for the glucose unknown, one corn syrup sample and one Gatorade sample are as follow: Glucose Unknown for Standard Curve 100 μg Stock Solution (10,000 μg/mL) ----------------> 99 mL H2O Table 1. Dilution Scheme of Unknown Glucose Sample % | mL of Solution | mL of H2O | 0 | 0 | 5 | 20 | 1 | 4 | 40 | 2 | 3 | 60 | 3 | 2 | 80 | 4 | 1 | 100 | 5 | 0 | Corn Syrup Solution 1 g Corn Syrup 0.5mL CS solution 1 g/L Corn Syrup ----------------> 1000 mL H2O ---------------------> 10 mL H2O Gatorade 1 mL Gatorade 21 g/ 355 mL----> 85μg/1000ml ----------------> 1000 mL
Hypothesis My hypothesis is that the volume of carbon dioxide released from the yeast will be high when it is respiring with glucose and fructose, but with lactose, as it is a disaccharide and the yeast does not contain the enzyme lactase, which is needed to break lactose down. Method 1. For each repeat, the 3 boiling tubes were set up in a test tube rack, each containing 4cm3 of 30% yeast solution and 4cm3 of the 15% sugars: glucose, fructose and lactose. 2. 5 drops of Janus Green solution was then added to the substrate, in order to indicate when the substrate would begin anaerobic respiration.
Active transport is the process where dissolved molecules move across the cell membrane from a lower to a higher concentration. The particles involved in active transport move against the concentration gradient, this means there needs be an input of energy from the cell. It may occur that the dissolved molecules are sometimes at a higher concentration inside the cell than outside, but as the organism needs the molecules they must still be absorbed. Active transport is highly selective, proteins are pumps ( carrier proteins) that use energy (ATP) and pick up specific molecules that are then taken through the cell membrane against the concentration gradient (one direction only). It is also know as 'uphill transport.'
Reactivity of the Enzyme Lactase By: Jonathan Figueroa Jonathan Figueroa BIO 104 Enzyme II Lab March 5, 2013 Reaction of the Enzyme Lactase Abstract In this experiment we will determine what circumstances are needed for the enzyme lactase to undergo its reaction and which will inhibit the reaction. Our hypothesis was that the lactase enzyme will react best between pH levels 6.8 and 8. We set up the experiment so that 5 different pH levels including 2, 4, 6.8, 8 and 10 are tested 3 times and averaged. When the experiment was completed our results determined that the pH levels did affect the enzyme’s productivity and the pH levels that was the most active was pH 6.8. Also from pH 2 – pH 6.8 the absorbance did increase, but from pH 8 – 10 the absorbance decreased.
Therefore insulin generates a reduced response in target tissues like skeletal muscle, liver, and adipocytes when compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance [NGT]. The most accurate way to measure insulin resistance is the euglycemic insulin clamp technique, in which insulin is infused to maintain a constant plasma insulin level. Glucose is then infused and, as the plasma level falls because of the action of insulin, more glucose is added to maintain a steady level. The amount of glucose infused over time provides a measure of insulin resistance. This and other similar methods are useful for research but are otherwise impractical