| | | C) | Osmotic pressure caused the cell to rupture. | | | D) | The cell was damaged by bacteria. | | | | | | Feedback: Since the cells are in a hypotonic solution, water entered by osmosis until the osmotic pressure ruptured the cell. | | 6 CORRECT | | The semifluid environment inside the plasma membrane is called ____. | | | A) | endoplastic reticulum | | | B) | microtubules | | | C) | cytoplasm | | | D) | mitochondria | | | | | | Feedback: The cell's chemical processes take place in a semifluid material called the cytoplasm.
Experiment#2 “Separating the Components of a Ternary Mixture” By Mohammad Bazargan Lab partners: Aaron Radtke, Kevin Campbell, Austin Gilchrist Instructor: Professor Mundell Section #: 12 Sep/14/2011 Abstract In this laboratory, we used physical and chemical properties to separate the components of a ternary (three substances) mixture. We also determine the percentage of each substance in the mixture. The percentages are the following,38.2% NaCl, 40.45% SiO2, and 72.84% CaCO3.The mentioned substances were all separated using methods such as filtration, evaporation and reaction with other chemicals which will be explained throughout this report. Intro Mixtures are \ physical combinations of two or more substances where each substance keeps its own chemical identity. Mixtures can be classified as either homogeneous or heterogeneous.
This was confirmed by the lab manual in page 30 which contains the list of the different Rf values by decreasing value. Introduction: Chemist use many ways of separating and determine want components are in different materials. One of this ways is by dissolving the material in solvent this will only get the mixture of components for example the spinach had to be grind up with hexane to get the organic material separated from the pigments that will be separated even further. Next using a solvent and a polar compound like alumina, the pigments separated from the organic material could be run in a column in which those will be separated even more using polarity. As a more polar solvent is use to push the different rings of pigment, these are collected in their own test tubes to then be run in a TLC which will determine the polarity using the Rf values and then comparing them to the table in the organic lab manual ones.
Antibiotics are produced by microorganism because they inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms; they are effective in low concentrations and act on specific species of microorganisms. 3. List four different ways that the antibiotics work to destroy or inhibit microorganisms and for each give named example of an antibiotic exhibiting this type of mechanism. (Note: you need to indicate the different processes or structures affected not simply variations or subsets of a process) Inhibit cell-wall formation: blocks a specific cross linking step in the bacteria in the process of reproduction. E.g.
The streak plate technique is done to isolate a colony formed by a single cell from a mixture containing millions of cells. The streak plate technique was also used to obtain pure cultures of the bacteria using a trypticase soy agar (TSA) plate and was incubated at 37 ̊ for 48 hours. Secondly a Gram stain was performed as directed from exercise 6in the lab manual (Kleyn 37) and was found to be Gram negative Rods. The Gram stain is important to do because it reveals the morphology of the organism and the arrangement of the cells; if an organism appears purple under a microscope then it is said to be Gram positive, and if it
A spectrophotometer was used to monitor the growth of E. coli over a 180-minute period. Spectrophotometers uses light to measure the optical density of a solution, based on the solutions turbidity. Certain wavelengths of light are used for different bacteria and solutions. To measure the optical density of reproducing E. coli, an optical density, (OD) of 600, OD600 was used. To grow the E. coli, 190ml of 2% glucose nutrient media was added to a 250nl Erlenmeyer flask.
At the bottom of the petri dishes we level it with four quadrants to make sure that each of the antibiotics were placed in the right quadrant and be able to see how the bacteria acted in respect to the placement of the antibiotic. One of the quadrants was kept as the control of the experiment. There were six antibiotic but each group obtain only three of the antibiotic for each bacteria. When placing the bacteria on the petri dish we used a pipette to obtain 100uL of the bacteria onto the petri dish. With a rod (spreader) that was dip in ethanol and then place under the busen burner in order to neutralize it; we spread the bacteria on every surface area of the petri dish.
The purpose of these primers were to select specific regions that will be amplified. Using primers TauT7F1 (5’ - ATC CCA GAA GGA ACC ACA GCT GAA - 3’) and TauT7R1 (5’ - TGT TTG GTC AAC TGG ACT CGT TCC - 3’), PCR reactions (based on standard PCR protocols) were employed to amplify the tau DNA region in the plasmid. 25 μL of master mix with the plasmid template DNA was treated with 1 μL each of forward and reverse primers, and 25 μL of water was finally added to make it to a total volume of 50 μL. Spectrometric analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis were conducted to analyze purity of the PCR product. From the gel electrophoresis, we found that the PCR product was about 600 bps.
Experiment 6 A & B: Thin Layer Chromatography Date: 10-9-12 Purpose: (A) Use thin layer chromatography to separate mixture of compounds of Fluorene, Fluorenol, & Fluorenone, then determine compounds found in unknown sample. (B) Determine development solvent by experimentation. Try 3 solvents for separating a pair of compounds that differ slightly in polarity. Procedure Outline:Part A1.Drew pencil line across plate 1 cm from bottom2. Marked 5 1 cm intervals on line starting 0.6 cm from edge of plate3.
The visual analysis of the results of the experiment will also be provided in which my qualitative data will be presenting which includes my own evaluation and observations of the experimental results. Quantitative & Qualitative Analysis The tables below show the results obtained by the first experiment in which I tested the effectiveness of TCP on E.coli Bacteria in 2 different petri