Although the short-acting morphine may be used by itself for short-term pain, such as pain after surgery, long-acting morphine is used for chronic (long-term) pain. How does this drug work? Morphine is an opioid pain reliever. It binds to opioid receptors in the brain and central nervous system (CNS), reducing the perception of pain as well as the emotional response to pain. How is this drug taken or given?
(10 pts.) : Fentanyl helps to control the patient’s severe chronic pain. It provides a continuous opioid analgesic to the patient that alters the patient’s perception of pain. Morphine also helps to control the patient’s pain by altering that patient’s perception of pain by binding to the opiate receptors. Amitriptyline is an antidepressant.
Narcotic agonists-antagonists react with some opioid receptor sites to stimulate activity and block other opioid receptor sites. These drugs are not as addictive as pure narcotic agonists (p. 414). Narcotic antagonists, which work to reverse the effects of narcotics, are used to treat narcotic overdose or to reverse unacceptable adverse effects (p. 417). B) Describe the therapeutic actions, indications, contraindications, the most common adverse reactions, and important drug-drug interactions for a narcotic. The narcotic agonist act at specific opioid receptor sites in the CNS to produce analgesia, sedation, and a sense of well-being.
Part 1- Dosage (in mg.) a. )Uses for Chloramphenicol The Drug Chloramphenicol, though no longer a commonly prescribed medication, is very successful for the treatment of a wide range of infections. Chloramphenicol is classified as a broad spectrum antibiotic. This medication works well against gram-positive, as well as gram-negative organisms, interfering with the process of protein synthesis, the process essential for bacterial growth Chloramphenicol was once considered the “drug of choice” by physicians, used to treat everything from the simple throat infection to the common flu. This is not the case anymore.
Antidepressants on the other hand by balancing neurotransmitters such as serotonin and epinephrine witch can cause depression if not sufficiently balanced. Anxiolytic drugs are used to combat anxiety disorders one drug in this field is benzodiazepines (Bzs) they work by releasing more (GABA) witch slows down the nerve transmission calming people down. This drug is effective in areas such as phobias. Another biological therapy is ECT, it is a surgical based treatment commonly used on manic depressives who haven’t responded to antidepressants. This treatment is administrated to a patient by putting a patient into an unconscious state then passing a current of 0.6 amps through the brain.
An experimental study shows that high sensitivity to gluten that directly related to inflammation, exercising also found to be helpful in reducing the effect. The causes of this syndrome can be blurred vision, ringing in the ears, crops of mouth sores, being thirsty. It can cause damage to the liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and lymph nodes. Up to five percent of patients develop a blood disorder, particularly
Rae Uddin (2011) however, lists the benefits. Stating that the use of medical marijuana improves the overall lives of sick patients. The author also conveys that the neurological pain level in HIV patients reduces by 30 percent with the use of marijuana. She agrees in her study, that it decreases appetite in patients. This is essential, due to patients that often loose appetite, not wanting to eat, are not getting the nutrients needed for the healing process.
Most mental health experts agree that when depression is severe, medication can be helpful, even life saving. Other studies show that the benefits of depression medication have been exaggerated. When it comes to mild to moderate depression, antidepressants are only slightly more effective than Natural Cures. They altar chemicals in the brain like serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine causing the body to be more prone to side
Suffering from chronic pain is a burden. With the help of medication, the burden is not as bad. Introduced in 1995, the pharmaceutical drug OxyContin was a breakthrough for pain management. OxyContin’s ability to subdue pain produced by chronic illnesses is very effective. For many, OxyContin showed an increased level of activity and drastic decline of pain.
Primarily indicated for pain and inflammation, it may also be used to relieve headaches, earaches, sore throats, sinus pain, stiff neck, muscle strains, menstrual cramps, arthritis including gout, and back pain. It is also effective at reducing fever and is generally safe for use in children. It is not advisable for most stomach-related pain, although may decrease the pain of kidney stones, kidney infections, and possibly bladder infections. The most common side effect is stomach irritation or heartburn. When combined with acetaminophen it is nearly as effective as codeine, tramadol, or hydrocodone in relieving more severe pain.