In a secret meeting in Plombieres between Cavour and Napoleon III in summer 1858, it was agreed that a joint war against Austria would take place. In return for this war, Italy would gain from Austria the possession of Lombardy, Venetia, as well as the duchies of Parma and Modena. France would regain Savoy and Nice from Italy. If the war was to be successful for the French and Italians, Italy would take control of the regions that have been for so long controlled by Austria. Back in Italian possession would be a major step to Unification.
Introduction Nation States saw a major resurgence during the post industrial revolution period of the 1860’s and 1870’s. By 1871, Europe was remapped with the rise of two newly united nations - the Kingdom of Italy and the German Empire. The unification movements of both countries took place at roughly the same time in the mid-19th century and were inspired by the Revolution in France and Napoleonic age and motivated by the same historical trends - that of liberalism and nationalism. The movements were led by two fierce nationalists Italian Prime Minister Camilo di Cavour and Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck.The following discussion presents a comparison of the two unifications. Pre-1815 Firstly ,before the French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte, both Italy and Germany shared some similar features.
Italian Unification Outline Intro- Italy was unified by Piedmont in 1870. Foreign intervention played a somewhat moderate role in Italian Unification, it is evident that the Unification of Italy was dependent on several main factors; the spread of nationalism by Mazzini and Carbonari, the works of Cavour and Garibaldi, the 1848 revolution and the support of other countries. Topic 1- Nationalism Mazzini and Cabonari were the main causes in the spread of Nationalism in Italy. Carbonari was a secret society that organized revolutions against Austrian rule; from 1820-1830 revolutions started in Italy. Although the results were ineffective it was effective in the sense of spreading Nationalism.
Thus, the North African campaign and the naval campaign for the Mediterranean were extensions of each other in a very real sense. The struggle for control of North Africa began as early as October 1935, when Italy invaded Ethiopia from its colony Italian Somaliland. That move made Egypt very wary of Italy's imperialistic aspirations. In reaction, the Egyptians granted Britain permission to station relatively large forces in their territory. Britain and France also agreed to divide the responsibility for maintaining naval control of the Mediterranean, with the main British base located at Alexandria, Egypt.
Benito Mussolini’s domestic and foreign policies had a large impact on Italy in the period between 1922 and 1939. Mussolini’s domestic policies allowed the Fascist Party to come into power in Italy, however their hold on the country was never wholly secure. In addition to his domestic policies, Mussolini’s foreign policy drove Italy into Germany’s arms in the Pact of Steel, where Germany was the dominant power. In October of 1922, King Victor Emmanuel III was prompted by a conservative statesman to ask Mussolini to form a government. Mussolini’s Fascism was very popular in Italy because of the fact that it aspired to fulfill Italy’s national desires.
Mazzini believed in centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people. (Doc 1) Mazzini’s opinion can be attributed to the fact that he was exiled from Piedmont in 1831, the fact that he wrote this passage while in exile proves that he unification of Italy was something he truly believed in. Jessie White Mario (Doc 9) agrees with Mazzini saying that every inch of ground won by Italians for Italy in 1848 and 1849 was won by republicans. Mario, being an editor of New York Times was pro independence and anti monarchy because he was trying to please an American reader.
`The Italian Unification or Italian Risorgimento is known as the chain of political and military events that produced a united Italian peninsula under the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. These events can be broken down in five stages: Pre-Revolutionary, Revolutionary, Cavour’s Policy and the Role of Piedmont, Garibaldi’s Campaign in Southern Italy, and the creation of the Italian Kingdom. I. Pre-Revolutionary Phase: After the Napoleonic Wars and Napoleon Bonaparte’s second defeat, the major powers that has resisted met at a conference called the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The topic of discussion was to limit France’s power, set limits on nations so no one nation become too strong, and divide up the territory conquered up by Napoleon. In its negotiations, the congress returned domination of the Italian Peninsula to Austria.
The Abyssinian crisis was in the 1930’s and took place in Abyssinia (known as Ethiopia today) in Africa. Italy sent in soldiers to conquer the country to increase its colonial empire. The leader of Abyssinia appealed to the League of Nations for help. The League proved in effective in dealing with the crisis. This had serious consequences for not only Abyssinia but also the survival of the League itself and its principle of “collective security” In April 1935 the Stresa Front was formed, it was triggered by Germany's declaration of its intention to build up an air force, to increase the size of its army.
ANALYSE THE MAJOR FACTORS WHICH LED TO THE GROWTH OF FASCISM IN ITALY BETWEEN 1919 – 1922 There are a number of different arguments from various historians regarding Fascism. Some argue that there was something about the Italian people and the crisis’ they faced since unification that led to the Fascist regime. Others argue the Marxist theory that Fascism could have happened anywhere as it was a counter revolution between the bosses and the workers and that it just so happened to be Italy where it took place first. I believe that Fascism is predominately Italian. Fascism did not rise from one single event; it grew from actions of people and groups over many years.
Introduction Italy finally reached unification in 1870 after many, many years of failed attempts and being under power of Austria. Though who are we to thank, the writer and President; Mazzini, the political; Cavour, the military; Garibaldi or the helpful Napoleon III? They were all great workers, though many of them had different end goals and motivations, and they all did different things to benefit the process of a unified Italy. Mazzini main contribution was awakening the idea of a unified Italy, and getting the process started. Cavour focused more of making Piedmont a better and stronger place more than the unification of Italy, though this contributed a lot.