‘The French revolution broke out in 1789 because of the monarchy’s debts” To what extent do you agree? The French Revolution of 1789 had many long-term causes. Political, social, and economic conditions in France contributed to the discontent felt by many French people-especially those of the third estate. The ideas of the intellectuals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. They thought of not an absolute monarch but a kind of democracy where everyone stated their views and everyone would listen.
John majors government came into office after the downfall of Margret Thatcher, which ultimately created divisions within the party. Not only did the party suffer from the internal conflict but also faced the problems of the recession after the ‘Lawson boom’. In order to stabilise the economy he joined the ERM getting a good deal but ultimately resulting in ‘black Wednesday’ causing Major to raise interest rates to 15%. This was political suicide and he soon lost the support of the press we had once relied so much on to get re-elected in 1992. The housing market also plummeted leading to negative equity, which the majority of the working class could not afford resulting in the repossession of their houses combined with the drastic increase in unemployment Britain was in a mess.
France was heavily indebted for financially supporting the American Revolution, as it would weaken France’s European rival, Great Britain, because of the wars waged by Louis XIV and spending of royal family. 3. Increasingly huge deficit, the French government was nearly bankrupt. 4. Heavy tax burden on the French peasants (= 90 % of the population).
French Revolution In 1789 the common people rose up against the unfair economic situation put upon them by the French Aristocracy. The monarchy spent such great amounts of money it put the country plunging into a large amount of debt. King Louis XVI and his predecessors left the country in poor conditions such as droughts, disease with cattle and massive price increases in goods. The monarchy sought to recover the debt by taxing the common people till they eventually reached the point of starvation and poverty while the King continued to spend money at his own dispense. At the time the United States was hoping to use their alliance with France to gain an advantage over the British, but did not want to lose their much needed trade with the British.
The wars meant it had expense and disrupt in trade. Example of this was the west coast ports depended on trade from West Indies and American colonies which was disrupted during the war time. This affected France because due to the lack of trade and industries got disrupted and the workers income was affected by this. These problems were multiplied because the end of the war was followed by economic depression. The political impact of France was the main factor that spread ideas.
Having a war caused inflation, government spending rose from 4-30 million, taxation increased, and money became practically worthless and the price of food and fuel quadrupled. This made people angry as they could not afford supplies for themselves and their families, which made them, turn to the Tsar for help but he wasn’t seen to be doing much about the effects of war on the people at home. Furthermore, as well as not being able to
Food shortages were a key problem in Russia as it meant the people were starving and desperate. It has consistently been a problem to the rulers of Russia such as the Provisional government. The people wanted change but they also wanted grain to feed themselves and their family. It was important that the food crisis would be solved by the Bolsheviks in order to gain the support of the people; however, due to Russia’s poor transport and little fertile land, it was simply an impossible job for any party or rulers of Russia especially due to the high demand of the huge populace. The demand for food has always been high in Russia which meant that no matter what reforms or radical changes a party can bring in, if they can’t feed the people there will always be bitterness which can and did result in opposition to Lenin and his Bolsheviks.
An unmanageable national debt, both caused by and exacerbating the burden of a grossly inequitable system of taxation. Food scarcity in the years immediately before the revolution. Absolutism and privilege France in 1789 was, at least in theory, an absolute monarchy, an increasingly unpopular form of government at the time. In practice, the king's ability to act on his theoretically absolute power was hemmed in by the (equally resented) power and prerogatives of the nobility and the clergy, the remnants of feudalism. Similarly, the peasants covetously eyed the relatively greater prerogatives of the townspeople.
World hunger, pollution, and population growth all contribute to the increasing tensions felt around the world. World hunger has been created by an unequal distribution of food and resources to the people of the world. Wealthier nations, like the United States, consume more than their fair share of resources, and throw away millions of dollars of edible food each day. This wasted food could have fed starving people in areas like Ethiopia. Another problem with food distribution is that governments, like those in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are exporting crops to countries willing to pay higher prices as opposed to feeding its own people (Haviland, 2011, 2008).
First, the War of Austrian Succession 1740 to 1748, then Seven Years War which lasted from 1756 to 1763 and caused France to lose huge amounts of overseas territory due to its defeat. It also intervened in the American War of Independence from 1778 to 1783 which cost approximately 1066 million livres. Most of the cost for War was supported through the loans Necker raised, which gave the lenders lack of confidence due to lack of elected parliament to guarantee the loans. Another reason for France’s financial problems was the tax system in France. The tax farming system was ineffective and chaotic - Farmers-General paid the State an agreed sum and kept for themselves any extra amount.