They replicate by invading targeted cells of their host and taking over genetic material responsible for reproduction. These are tiny infectious agents that are so small that even a light microscope will not detect them visibly, infecting all kinds of cells from bacteria, fungi, plants, animals and humans. Some of their common illnesses and infections include colds, influenza, chicken pox, measles, mumps, herpes, norovirus and cold sores. Fungi are simple plant like single-celled organisms, reproducing both sexually and asexually via spores. They take on various forms and can include yeast and moulds.
They are divided into two different groups: yeasts and dermotophytes. Common parasite infection include scabies and head lice. Both of these will present with an itching of a particular area. With head lice you can see the actual parasite, whereas with scabies, the parasite is beneath the skin but will present itself with red track marks along an area where it has been. Both are highly contagious and it is recommended to avoid as much contact as possible until treated.
Typical Viruses are illnesses like smallpox, measles, mumps and tuberculosis etc which can be contracted by touch or being within an environment that has the virus in the air. Fungus or Fungi can cause such Infections like Athletes foot, Chlamydia and Thrush. Parasites because of the way they transfer from host to host mainly by contact and can cause infections such as Malaria, Ringworm, Fleas, nits etc. (3) A description of the terms ‘Infection’ and ‘Colonisation’ are that an infection can lead to a colonisation if un monitored or un treated. An infection would be
ENV 207 Disease Botulism What is botulism? Botulism is a rare but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and sometimes by strains of Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium baratii. There are five main kinds of botulism. Foodborne botulism is caused by eating foods that contain the botulinum toxin. Wound botulism is caused by toxin produced from a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum.
P1: Explain how infections are caused by different pathogens: * Bacteria * Fungi * Protozoa * Parasites * Viruses Bacteria: Pathogens are microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria and these cause diseases in the body. Bacteria is a pathogen and are microscopic living cells that multiply at a rapid speed, once inside the body they spread toxins making the individual ill. Bacteria can cause diseases such as; * food poisoning * cholera * typhoid * whooping cough * gonorrhoea - a sexually transmitted disease Bacteria can travel in many things such as food, water or even through the air. For example if an individual is sitting next to someone that keeps on sneezing, the individual will eventually
Unit 4222-265 Causes and spread of Infection. outcome1: Understand the causes of infections 1:1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Infections are the result of the body’s inability to fight off microorganisms that cause disease or infection: Bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria are organisms that are found almost everywhere. They are found naturally in humans, as well as plants and animals.
The portal of entry and the portal of exit are virtually the same and include: the respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary tract and the skin. Some conditions that could potentially make a host more susceptible to an infection are: A compromised immune system, the age of the host (very young or very old are more susceptible), stress, overall poor health or a pre-existing injury (LabPaq, p. 202). Three primary modes of transmission are: direct, droplet and indirect. In direct transmission the disease is spread by close contact with another person via skin or bodily secretions. An example of direct transmission would be a contagion spread by an infected person kissing a non-infected person.
Wound botulism is caused by toxin produced from a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum. Consuming the spores of the botulinum bacteria, which then grow in the intestines and release toxin, causes infant botulism. Adult intestinal toxemia (adult intestinal colonization) botulism is a very rare kind of botulism that occurs among adults by the same route as infant botulism. Lastly, iatrogenic botulism can occur from accidental overdose of botulinum toxin. All forms of botulism can be fatal and are considered medical emergencies.
Other fungi can cause illness. One example is Candida — a yeast that can cause infection. Candida can cause thrush — an infection of the mouth and throat — in infants and in people taking antibiotics or who have an impaired immune system. Fungi are also responsible for skin conditions such as athlete’s foot and ringworm. A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside another organism to the detriment of the host organism.
2) 2.1) Micro organisms need moisture, warmth and time to grow. 2.2) An infection agent may enter the body by; inhalation, ingestion, wound contamination, animal or insect bites and sexual transmission. 2.3) Common sources of infection include; Food, water, animals, poor personal hygiene and ill people. 2.4) Infective agents can be transmitted to a person through contact with an infected or contaminated object or person. 2.5) Factors include; compromised immune system, lack of good precautions – hand washing, cleaning of surfaces, exposure to infectious agents and handling of body