How far does Alexander II deserve the Title “Tsar Liberator”? Prior to the reign of Alexander II, his father, Nicholas I ruled Russia under repressive and old fashioned policies. Alexander felt there was a lot of change needed to help boost the Russian economy. Russia’s economy was largely based around agriculture which was seen as backward for the time. One of Alexander’s reforms was to boom industries to start competing with the west who had more developed technology and whose economies were much more stable.
Until the Americans joined the War, Germany had managed to move forces into Belgium and Western France, increasing the pressure on Britain because for the first time it became apparent that the War was even closer to home than had at first been perceived. The nature of the war took a turn in 1917 when the USA joined to the aid of Britain, France and Russia, taking part in their first battle on the 28th May 1918, which proved as a success and a great boost to allied morale. Now, that the USA, the world’s strongest economic power had joined the war, Germany was forced to fight the war on two fronts; both on the East and on the West. It was because of this alliance, and fact that the Allies faced Germany and its allies on both sides that, once America had joined, the war was able to be won decisively. Linking to this fact, the alliance and geographical positions of both America and Russia were not the only two determining factors, as both nations were able to supply vast numbers of troops to the war effort, and the USA in particular was able to supply copious amounts of money to the allies, bringing new technologies to warfare.
Assess the reasons why Stalin emerged as leader of the USSR by 1929? Stalin emerged as leader of the USSR by 1929 for many reasons including: Party members tended to support Stalin's changes of policy line an example of a very popular policy was the ‘socialism in one country’ which was supported by many members of Russia. His control of the party machine was crucial factor in his success, as he was a skillful politician who outmaneuvered his opponents but he was also lucky. The weaknesses and errors of Trotsky’s judgments’ were important factors in his defeat. Moreover, Stalin was against the NEP, so he advocated industrialization which again strengthened his support.
After Stalin came into power, his goal was to make Russia a powerful communist country. To achieve this goal, he felt that Russia needed to rapidly industrialize, since they were behind advanced countries. Through modernization, Joseph Stalin was able to restore order by industrializing the country, collectivizing the farms and making the Soviet Union more active in international affairs. In 1928, one of Stalin’s goals was to rapidly develop a heavy industry. Stalin wanted to make the Soviet Union an industrial fortress and a strong nationalistic state.
Why, despite the disasters of 1941, was Soviet Russia able to defeat Nazi Germany by 1945? Despite many of the problems Soviet Russia initially faced when joining World War Two in 1939- such as a lack of high quality weaponry and equipment, poor economy and lack of knowledgeable officers due to the extensive purges under The Great Terror- they were able to quickly overcome them and emerge victorious against Nazi Germany in 1945. The reason behind their changing fete came as a result of a culmination of key factors including: Stalin’s leadership; the sheer patriotism and strength of the Russian people; the alliances they, begrudgingly, made; as well as fatal German mistakes. One of the factors behind this victory, which can be deemed as the least influential, was the German mistakes. Despite Hitler’s wealth of well put together weaponry, well trained and seemingly invincible army and a seemingly tactical mind-set (which made him at first so fearful and successful) he eventually made some vital errors which led to the Nazi demise.
Similar to the first, the second five-year plans focused on industry and consolidation of power. However having learnt from mistakes during the unstructured first plan, Stalin introduced the idea of a better standard of living and consumer goods to create a society that brought everyone together, helping ‘Mother Russia’. It is believed that Stalin used the first five year plans to cement his position as leader of Russia, introducing heavy industry of which brought many people together. During the second plan, he increased the production of weapons, means of transport and arms that are all essential when fighting in a war. It was becoming clear that Stalin’s rivalry with the Western world was creating the reason for a ‘war economy’.
Lenin was responsible for the Bolsheviks growing hold on power in the years 1917-24. He was responsible for changing strategy with the April thesis and the overthrow of the provisional government. This gained him popularity and support from the Russian populous. To strengthen power he dissolved the constituent assembly in 1918. His harsh policy of war communism and the use of the checka in the years of the civil war, removed opposition to his power.
Some researchers believe that this is particularly true for the industrialized countries with their powerful military machine. At one time, to refer to the integration of military and economic development in the conditions of modern warfare, President Eisenhower used the term military-industrial complex. Originally, the term originated in connection with attempts to ensure the systematic application of science and technology in military production. Later, however, Eisenhower began to perceive the development of the military-industrial ties as something rather disturbing, fearing that the power of the military-industrial complex has acquired such proportions that the most important decisions in the field of social and political life were out of the activities of politicians (Hunt, Colander, 2010). Many subsequent authors have argued that as a result of the Cold War (the period of hostile relations between the US and the USSR in 1950-60-ies, which led to the arms build-up by both parties) reached a particular span the United States and the Soviet Union's military-industrial complex.
While these factors created tension, something more was needed to create the war. By the end of 1938 many of the German's grievances had been removed. Reparations had been canceled, Germany was rearming, Austria and Germany were reunited, the German people of Czechoslovakia had been recovered; Germany had become a great power again. So, what went wrong? Hitler was to blame is the common answer.
Why the Allies Won WW2 This essay will be about world war two, and how the allies managed to defeat the axis powers. I believe the main reason the allied forces won the war is because the allied forces were producing more troops, goods, and other war materials faster than the axis powers could defend. The allied powers consisted mostly of the United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union, while the axis powers consisted mostly of Germany, Italy, and Japan. In Europe, Germany and Italy tried to expand their forces to fast and too much and got spread out to quick. The battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in the war, where the Germans were outnumbered and crushed.