High concentrations of sulfur dioxide can result in breathing problems with asthmatic children and adults who are active outdoors. With longer term exposure could include respiratory illness, alterations in the lungs defenses, and aggravation of existing cardiovascular disease. Sulfur dioxide is a precursor of acid rain, which has acidified soils, lakes and streams, accelerated corrosion of buildings and monuments, and reduced visibility which effect the environment. Nitrogen oxide is a group of gases made up of different oxygen and nitrogen. Major sources of nitrogen oxide include fuel combustion in power plants and automobiles and processes used in chemical plants.
PRELIMINARY CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT TASK 1. Identify the sources of pollution which accompany the combustion of organic compounds and explain how these can be avoided. Combustion refers to the burning of a substance in oxygen. It is a process in which a self-sustained chemical reaction occurs at temperatures above those of the surroundings. Combustion of organic compounds can result in detrimental impacts on the environment such as the generation of acids and production of carbon monoxide, particulates and soot.
Does Human Activity Influence Global Climate Change? Global climate change is the gradual increase in the overall temperature of the atmosphere of the Earth. It is caused by carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. The biggest contributor to global climate change are greenhouse gases (gases that trap heat in the atmosphere) such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. An unnaturally large amount of these “greenhouse gases” are released by human activities like burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and mining.
The process of acid rain includes: natural or man-made sources, gases and particles in the atmosphere, dry deposition and wet deposition. Sources Rain water that has been contaminated with chemicals introduced into the atmosphere is acid rain. There are two sources that release chemicals into the air causing acid rain. One source is natural cause such as rotting vegetation and erupting volcanoes. The other source is man-made activities.
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Rapid urbanization combined with industrialization has led to the generation and disposal of enormous amount of waste in our environment. Petroleum based industries including oil refineries are one of the major industrial sectors that generate tremendous amount of pollutants (Bhaben et al., 2009). The increased petroleum exploration, refining and other allied industrial activities have led to the wide scale contamination of most land and water bodies. Optimum utilization and benefits from crude oil are derived by converting crude oil through processing in a refinery into a wide range of products such as petroleum, fuels, lubricants, waxes and bitumen depending on market demand. While petroleum refinery and petrochemical industries are most desirable for national development and improved quality of life, the unwholesome and environmentally unacceptable pollution effects from these industries have been reported world-wide (Ruiz-Oradaz et al., 2001).
An air pollutant can be described as a substance that is not normally present in air or a substance that is normally present but in excess amounts. The main primary air pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), particulates (like: soot, ash, dust, asbestos, smoke), and hydrocarbons (CxHy or R-H). Secondary pollutants are compounds formed when primary pollutants react in the air. The sources of air pollution are both natural and human-based. As one might expect, humans have been producing increasing amounts of pollution as time has progressed, and they now account for the majority of pollutants released into the air.
This essay aims to describe the impact of halogenated species on the tropospheric ozone (O3). Halogenated species are in the focus of this study because they are involved in the ozone destruction in the atmosphere. Despite the relatively small concentrations of halogenated species in the atmosphere, their potential to destruct the ozone is very high due to their catalytic mechanism of ozone depletion that regenerates halogenated species making them available to react further with the ozone. The word halogen means ‘salt former’, and compounds that contain halogens are called salts. The halogens are diatomic, monovalent elements from Group VII of the periodic table comprising of Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I) and Astatine (At).
Human Impact on Cycles Patrece Scales Professor Michael Gehosky October 26, 2012 There are many ways humans have impact on carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles. The carbon cycle is involved in movement of carbon between atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, and geosphere. Natural gas, oil, and coal are known as fossil fuels. They are commonly burned to generate electricity where ever it is needed. When a human use oil in his/her car, van, or truck, they have a great bid of impact on carbon, because when oil is being burned carbon is released into the atmosphere at a very fast rate, than it is removed.
Industries that manufacture things like soaps, refrigerators, take-away containers, etc. use a chemical called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). This chemical is heavier than air so it can’t rise up by itself (if it could, ozone depletion would be much faster), so it is transferred to the ozone by wind. There are also ODSs (ozone depleting substances) that also harm the ozone layer. ODSs can be found in fire extinguishers, pesticides, industrial solvents and many more.
TOPIC: Open Fire Burning. How Does It Affect Us? ABSTRACT Open burning is the disposal of any waste material in an open, outside flame and can be a substantial wellspring of air contamination. Smoke from open burning contains fine particles, gasses and other harmful results of burning that can be breathed in profoundly into the lungs. Exploratory studies have interfaced presentation to fine particles to trouble in breathing, irritated asthma, expanded crisis room visits and healing centre affirmations, and, at times, unexpected losses.