It is a microscopic organism consisting of genetic material. They cannot reproduce without a host cell. Several human diseases are caused by viruses which include:- smallpox, measles, the common cold, chickenpox, hepatitis, HIV, cold sores, shingles to name but a few. Viruses can spread from person to person, and by exchange of salvia, coughing, sneezing. Fungi Fungi are skin infections caused by dermatophytes and yeasts, which are groups of fungi that are normally harmless.
2) 2.1) Micro organisms need moisture, warmth and time to grow. 2.2) An infection agent may enter the body by; inhalation, ingestion, wound contamination, animal or insect bites and sexual transmission. 2.3) Common sources of infection include; Food, water, animals, poor personal hygiene and ill people. 2.4) Infective agents can be transmitted to a person through contact with an infected or contaminated object or person. 2.5) Factors include; compromised immune system, lack of good precautions – hand washing, cleaning of surfaces, exposure to infectious agents and handling of body
For instance, Lactobacillus acidophilus — a harmless bacterium that resides in your intestines — helps you digest food, destroys some disease-causing organisms and provides nutrients. Many disease-causing bacteria produce toxins — powerful chemicals that damage cells and make you ill. Bacteria can multiply very rapidly if given the right environment. Viruses are much smaller than cells. In fact, viruses can only be seen by electronic microscope. To reproduce, viruses invade cells in your body, hijacking the machinery that makes cells work.
They can survive with without a host. Vaccinations have a weakened virus in them to stimulate the bodys defenses. Parasites have a nucleus and share many the same features of a human cell. Fungus also have a nucleus. They are commonly found as spores and molds in the environment and as yeast in humans.
A parasite is a tiny organism that lives in or on a host (A body) which they use in order to feed. Parasites can cause severe illness's, there are 3 main types of parasites: protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. 2. Bacteria salmonella(food poisioning) e.coli causes abdominal pain,cramps and diarreha Staphylococus found on skin Mrsa responsible for many infections. Viruses common cold,flu mumps and measles.
There are several types of parasites such as Ectoparasite- which is a parasite that lives on the host’s surface, examples will be hair and body lice and mites. Endoparasites – One that lives inside the host, for example heartworm, tapeworm and flatworms. Epiparasite- This one feeds on another parasite. For example, fleas and ticks. 1.2 Identify common illness and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
Outcome 1 Understand the cause of infection 1.Identify the difference between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria Bacteria is a single celled organism, bacteria have evolved to thrive in almost any environment and can be found in almost any substance/surface and also in the human body, only 1% of bacteria is actually harmful. It's bad or infectious bacteria that cause illness as they rapidly reproduce and produce a toxin that kills or mutates cells, bacteria is also self sufficient. Viruses A virus is a small capsule that contains DNA or RNA, viruses, unlike bacteria are not self sufficient and need a host in order to reproduce I.E a human body. When a virus enters the body, it enters some certain cells and takes over making the now host cell make the parts the virus needs to reproduce, the cells are eventually destroyed through this process.
Parasites - A parasite is an organism that lives on or within another living organism, it feeds off of the host. It can be very detrimental to the host. 1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by: Bacteria - Clostridium Difficile, (C-Diff) Diarrhoea. Legionella,through water contact, can be water coolers and showers heads Salmonella, is passed human to human through food or water MRSA – usually from urine tract and catheters Viruses - Hepatitus A,B and C. Transmitted through bodily fluids HIV. Transmitted through blood, sexual contact, Influenza.
Common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi And parasites: Bacteria Tuberculosis, pneumonia, tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, salmonella. Viruses Cold, flu, chicken pox, cold sores, shingles, hepatitis B and C, HIV, norovirus. Fungi Thrush, ringworm, atheletes foot, histoplasmosis Parasites Malaria, scabies, toxoplasmosis, sleeping sickness 3. Infection is the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and Their multiplication which lead to tissue damage and disease. Colonisation is an infection which has no signs or symptoms and will not make you sick.
1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites The most common illnesses and infections that occur due to bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are Dioreah, Vomiting, Influenza, Nail infections, Tick bites, Colds, Skin Conditions, Digestive Problems ( Parasites - Worms ) and in some cases, Death. 1.3 Describe what is meant by “Infection” and “Colonisation” As defined by : www.freedictionary.com INFECTION Invasion by and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms in a bodily part or tissue, which may produce subsequent tissue injury and progress to overt disease through a variety of cellular or toxic mechanisms. This means that Infection is the process of infecting or being infected. COLONISATION A mass of microorganisms in a culture that originates from a single cell. This means that when either a Virus, Bacteria, Fungi or parasites in the single form, gather and join to make one mass of either Virus, Bacteria, Fungi or parasites.