Case Study

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The constituents of milk that are most important in food preparation are enzymes, vitamins, pigments, salts, sugar, fat, and proteins. Enzymes. The enzymes of cow's milk are reported as follows by Rogers; proteinases, lactase, diastase, lipase, salolase, catalase, peroxidase, and aldehydrase. Rogers states that the proteolytic enzyme, galactase, brings about slow decomposition of milk proteins into peptones, amino acids, and ammonia. Vitamins. All the vitamins recognized at the present time are contained in milk. Some are present in comparatively large and others in smaller amounts. Pigments. The appearance of milk is white. This is due to light rays reflected by the colloidally dispersed constituents of the milk, the calcium caseinate, and calcium phosphate. Milk contains two classes of yellow or orange pigments. The water-soluble pigment, which imparts a yellow color with a green fluorescence to the whey of milk, was formerly called lactochrome. A name recently suggested for this pigment is lactoflavin. It is regarded as one flavin of a specific group, collectively to be called lyochromes. It is possible that lacto-flavin is composed of more than one pigment. Rogers says "lactoflavin forms compounds with saccharides, proteins, and purines (uric acid). These compounds possibly either occur naturally in milk or readily form during isolations, thus accounting for the several lactoflavins isolated from milk." It is probable that the pigment lactoflavin is one of the five fractions of vitamin G (B2). Milk is relatively rich in this vitamin. A fat-soluble pigment, carotene, found in the fat gives the milk a more or less yellow tinge, which is more pronounced as the fat particles become more concentrated and form cream. The group of pigments called caroti-noids, which include carotene, xanthophyll, and related pigments, has been described in the chapter on

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