The idea behind this was to use 'talking therapy' to bring past memories from the unconscious to the conscious. The unconscious is when you are doing or thinking something without being alert or aware that you are doing it. Along the idea of the unconscious Freud also developed the concept of the ID, the Ego and the Superego. The id is described as an impulsive, selfish side to our personality which is ruled by a pleasure principle, the superego is the moral part of our personality which recognises right from wrong; and our ego is the part of our mind which tries to rationalise and arbitrate both sides of our thoughts. Freud believed that there were two main causes of abnormality in general.
As a result there are a variety of theories of personality which try to describe the cause and effect of the human personality. This essay will briefly compare and contrast two of these theories which include the psychoanalytic and humanistic theories of personality. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the various types of theories with respect to personality because such a discourse enables psychologists to discover more about social behaviours in daily life (Fiske et al, 2010; 365). Both theoretical viewpoints, while being substantially different from each other, do share some common comparisons as we shall examine below. Psychoanalytical theories of personality stress the individual’s unconscious motivations which can be identified through dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies (McCrae & Costa, 2003; 21).
Sigmund Freud's theory is the psychoanalytic theory unique to a certain point and which it has developed formal models describing the ways in which individuals process information on different levels (Bornstein, 2010). Freud saw dreams as a way of unlocking unconscious thoughts and untold secrets. Sigmund created his theory through the importance of unconscious. Carl Jung accepted the unconscious idea and developed the analytic psychology. Both Freud and Jung were drawn to the unconscious way of explaining dreams.
Freudian interpretation, the Jungian approach, and Adler’s concept on the creative self are theories on how the mind works. Although Jung and Adler were inspired by Freud, each of these men broke away from Freudian theories to create separate theories in explaining the concept of the unconscious mind and of people’s behavior. Karen Horney was the first to present an entirely new concept on feminine psychology. The narrative mind is parallel with Eriksson’s identity concept (McAdams, 1999). No matter which theory an individual is inclined to believe, the all have a common premise in that the narratives individuals express are not always what he or she appear to be.
This paper will also explain the role that statistics play in research and their importance to the study of psychology. Research and The Scientific Method Research is done in many areas of life to understand how and why an individual behaves a certain way,
How might an understanding of human development help a psychodynamic counsellor work more effectively with a client? Introduction The foundation of Psychodynamic counselling is based on the theories that Sigmund Freud formulated, and his followers then moulded into their own theories or devised their own new theories over the years. All psychodynamic counsellors today use a mixture of the different theories in order to help and support the client. Problems like depression, anxiety, anger and social isolation can all be successfully treated and improved using some form of psychodynamic approach. (Aengel; 2010) In this essay, I want to do an overview of the different human developments and how by having an understanding of the effects each stages may have on an individual in adulthood, along with the use of the other psychodynamic approaches for example: transference, counter-transference, defence mechanisms and Malan’s triangle, will help the counsellor work more effectively with the client.
Key aspects of psycho dynamic therapy are dream interpretation and transference that is when feelings from previous significant relationships are projected on to the therapist. Free association is often used too where by the patient talks of whatever comes to mind or immediately responds with a word when a list is read out e.g. mother, childhood etc. Others who practised, researched and expanded on Freud’s original theories include Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) and Alfred Adler (1870 – 1937). Humanistic approach American psychologist Carl Ransom Rogers (1902 – 1987) was one of the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology, He believed for a person to ‘’grow’’ they need an environment that provides them with congruence (genuineness, openness) unconditional positive regard (acceptance) and empathy (being understood and listened to).
According to Freud, even though the unconscious is hidden it still continues to sway our behaviours. It is important in counselling to have an understanding of the unconscious mind because it is the counsellor main goal to help their client become aware of their unconscious mind therefore helping them to understand and alter that problem behaviour. 5. List the three different aspects of personality identified by Freud. Briefly explain how they relate to each other.
Freudian psychoanalytic theory, on the other hand, had tended to de-emphasize conscious thought. Advances in behavioral science and experimental psychology had brought up questions of the main assumptions of psychoanalysis, and new theories of the human mind were coming. “There are actually several kinds of Cognitive-Behavioral therapies and they all employ the same general premise: in contrast to the psychodynamic emphasis on insight into unconscious motivation, the cognitive-behavioral therapies emphasize the ability of people to make changes in their lives without having to understand why the change occurs. “ Research into human emotion had found that people’s thoughts, beliefs, and assumptions about events are important in guiding emotional experience (Carson, B.M. 2000).
behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, and humanistic therapy. Going through the basic tenets of these approaches some similarities and dissimilarities can be found. The behavior therapy mainly focuses on “learning’s role in developing both normal and abnormal behaviors” (“Different approaches to psychotherapy”, n.d.). In this regard it can be said that behavior therapy differs from the approach called cognitive psychotherapy because the latter emphasizes more on the thought process than action. In other words, cognitive therapy “emphasizes what people think rather than what they do” (“Different approaches to psychotherapy”, n.d.).