In A.D 527 the Roman Empire which had been severely depleted came under the control of the Emperor Justinian I. One of his main aims was to restore the Empire to the glory it had seen in former days and rebuild trade routes it had once used. This process of restoring the Byzantine/Roman Empire involved the formation and movement of great armies, established a support system to supply these armies, along with plenty of funding. The Emperor forced heavy taxes on the citizens of the empire and re-conquered domains to help pay for the wars he would wager. One of Justinian’s most acclaimed generals a man called Belisarius, who in various military operations lasting for several decades would out wit, out manoeuvre and out fight numerous different antagonists, such as the barbarian hordes of the Goths, Vandals and Avars to the more civilized professional forces of the Persians.
The Dáil gCais had already captured Limerick city after the battle of Sulcoit in 967. In the battle, Ivar the last ruler of the city was killed. Using Limerick as a centre of power, and the Shannon as a new means to transport an army, Brian began to lay claim to the Kingship of All Ireland. Leinster gave submission in 983, and Maelsechnaill (King of Tara) agreed to share high Kingship in 997 at a meeting at Clonfert. Brian was now High King of the South and by 1002 he had overshadowed Maelsechnaill’s reign.
He was of the belief that he was the rightful ruler of England. He was an heir to the King Magnus, this king had ruled before Edward the Confessor seized his throne. They all fought battles towards the throne. For all of Harold’s efforts to build armies, castles and vessels he was slain in an early battle. The English retreated and eventually accepted William of Normandy as victorious and their
CRIME AND ORDER MAINTENANCE IN CELTIC &; ROMAN BRITAIN MODULE 1 Malfeasance in office was as common in Roman Britain as it is in modern Britain – discuss with reference to Julius Argricola. Julius Agricola, born 13th March 40AD, was a Statesman and soldier, and when Roman Britain was conquered, became Governor in 78AD of large areas of Great Britain, holding this position for seven years. As Governor, he became the personal representative of the Emperor, and it is well documented that appointment to office allowed the individual to pay debts and accumulate enough money to perhaps gain further promotion (Barrow R.H. 1990. The Romans. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books).
“Great Pandemic”: The Black Death Tax farming: able to deliver large amounts of grain, cash, and silk. ‘The Mongol Yoke”: Describes the ruthless Mongol rule over the Slavs for about 200 years after the conquest of Chinggis Khan. The Mongols used existing Slavic princes as servants and tax collectors. Good princes were rewarded with heredity. Alexander Nevsky began the process of making the princes more powerful, and it was finished by Ivan III, who overthrew the Mongols and became Russia's first tzar Tsar: Russian title for monarch to refer Russian Ruler, Ivan III (r. 1462-1505) Teutonic Knights: Order of German Knights founded in Jerusalem who shifted their area of operation in 1211 to eastern Europe to convert non-Christians Places The Ukraine: a country in Eastern Europe Empires / Kingdoms Il-khan Empire: a “secondary” or “peripheral” khan based in Persia.
As Wand believed, “This battle marks an epoch, for it helped to make the first Christian Empire and so affected the history of European civilisation down to the present time”. After their joint edict of toleration to all citizen AD313, Licinius began a renewal of persecution against Christians in AD319 believing their loyalty lay with Constantine. A final conflict ensued in AD324 in which Constantine was victorious and assumed as the sole emperor of the Roman Empire until his death in May AD337. After the Battle of the Mivilian Bridge, the Edict of Milan was expanded to include the East where according to Wand, “Christians were far more numerous” in which religious toleration to all, especially Christians was noted. It is a possibility that Contantine had Christian family members with his half sister being called Anastasia, meaning resurrection and he would have encountered Christians within Diocletian's courts.
From 1536 the royal court was at the heart of the government and power lay with the king. However, to exercise it effectively he relied on a bureaucracy supervised by the Council and the co-operation of both the nobility and Church. When the king intervened with the parliament and governments his power was at its strongest forming a King-in-Parliament. The whole arrangement of appointments was held by patronage where both the king and those close to him acted as patrons putting forward their clients for position and office to ensure Henry could depend on each and every one to support him in order to succeed a Henrician Reformation. This facilitated him to becoming the most superior individual and increased overall royal power by building up political influence in the latter years.
Catherine's nephew the Holy Roman Emperor had sacked Rome and the Pope was a virtual prisoner. Henry saw that if he made himself Head of the English Church he could grant himself a divorce, remove the power of Rome from his Kingdom and allow himself access to the great wealth of the Church. This is precisely what Henry did. He passed the ACT of SUPREMACY, which said that he was the Supreme Head of the Church of England. In 1533 he married Ann and divorced Catherine.
These wars began when the Catholic Church executed the leader of the Hussites Jan Hus in 1415. Žižka, a believer in Hus's theology, united with the Hussites against Emperor Sigismund and acted decisively in the First Defenestration of Prague in 1419. Following the Defenestration of Prague Zizka moved his troops to Tabor to further pressure Emperor Sigismund’s army. Tabor being an agricultural area Zizka decided to implement farming tools into battle tools. He cleverly mounted cannons onto wagons as an early tank prototype.
“He conquered Egypt during the early years of his reign, kept his armies busy in northern Spain, expanded across the Rhine river, and even conquered land along the banks of the Danube river. He also commissioned several generals to conquer Nubia, Arabia, and Mesopotamia. And although those three campaigns failed, it actually ended up promoting trade with said places.”- Augustus; by Garret G. Fagan. Putting an empire to its greatest extent is a sign of a Golden age, as well as promoting trade, and that’s one of the things that caused his reign to be a Golden age. Another factor that set him into the hall of fame was the precedent of “traditional borders” in the Roman empire.