C) Which structures found in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli normally would protect Cari’s lungs from infectious pathogens and particulate matter? There are macrophages presents (wandering phagocytes) that remove dust particles and other debris from the alveolar space. D) How would the resistance of Cari’s airways be affected by excess mucus and fluid in her lung? The lung capacity is decreased because the air space is already filled with mucus and fluids therefore she can’t take in enough oxygen. The extra mucus and fluids put extra pressure on the lungs.
What is the cough reflex? The cough reflex is used to clear sputum and irritants that are in the nasal passages and pharynx. b. Describe the process that Cari’s respiratory system is using to clear her lungs by coughing: The cilia in her trachea move mucus up from the lungs, copious amounts of mucus trigger the cough reflex. 3.
Smokers’ cough turns into chronic bronchitis, caused by the deteriorated cilia. Mucus thickens and becomes greater in amount, thickening the lining of the bronchioles, resulting in difficulty breathing. The bronchioles steadily lose their elasticity which prevents them from absorbing the pressure on the alveoli, causing the alveoli to rupture; smoking-induced emphysema. This progression results in a worsening cough, wheezing, difficult breathing, and fatigue. As these structural changes are occurring, there are also cellular or molecular changes taking place in the lungs.
MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS: Pneumonia: Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. The infection may be caused by fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Pneumonia causes inflammation in your lungs air sacs, also referred to as alveoli. The alveoli fill with fluid or pus, making it difficult to breathe. The invading organism causes symptoms, in part, by provoking a large immune response in the lungs.
The secondary cause is related to an existing infection or disease. Each of these are caused by different irritants that result in the same disruption of normal perfusion. The attacks on the lung lead to alveolar inflammation and edema that causes low ventilation and blood and fluid to be pushed into the capillaries. This leads to a stasis in the lung’s gas perfusion and creates a pressure that makes it harder for the individual to breath (Anatomical Chart Company, 2010, p. 100). The first signs and symptoms of any infection should immediately be put to the attention of the health care provider.
CLD results from lung injury to newborns who must use a mechanical ventilator and extra oxygen for breathing. The lungs of premature babies are fragile and are easily damaged. With injury, the tissues inside the lungs become inflamed and can break down causing scarring. This scarring can result in difficulty breathing and increased oxygen needs. Some of the causes of lung injury include the following: •prematurity - the lungs, especially the air sacs, are not fully developed •low amounts of surfactant (a substance in the lungs that helps keep the tiny air sacs open) •oxygen use (high concentrations of oxygen can damage the cells of the lungs) •mechanical ventilation - the pressure of air from breathing machines, suctioning of the airways, use of an endotracheal tube (ET tube - a tube placed in the trachea and connected to a breathing machine) Who is affected by chronic lung disease?
Furthermore an abnormal rapid heart rate is another sign for asthma attack. Nevertheless it is our own immune system, which causes those symptoms by an acute inflammatory response to the triggers. During an asthma attack, the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi, bronchioles
During the asthma attack excess mucus is produced, which blocks the airway canal causing narrowing of the airway and more difficult air exchange in and out of airway sac. Because of this constriction, inflammation and mucous production, it is difficult to push air out of the airway sac causing the wheezing sound that is common with asthmatics. Asthmatics live with some amount of inflammation in their lungs on an everyday basis. By coming into contact with a trigger such as secondhand smoke, the asthmatic airway becomes more inflamed and constricted until it is almost impossible for the child to move air in and out of the lungs. It has been said that the feeling of an asthma attack is the difference between breathing normally and breathing in and out continuously through a very small
Since in this disease there is accumulation of coal dust in lungs it causes alveolar dead space. It means that the area of alveoli where carbon is accumulated eventually losses it function and is called as dead space alveoli because no exchange of gas occur in this alveoli. Not only this, Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis also creates hyperventilation because adequate amount of oxygen is not inhaled to compensate the requirement of body (Morgan, Lapp, & Morgan,
Asthma vs. COPD Many clinicians have a hard time differentiating between the two diseases Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Asthma is a lung disease in which the airways within your lungs swell and become narrow. This results in difficulty breathing. Environmental and genetic factors are believed to be the main causes of Asthma. COPD is another disease of the lungs in which airflow is obstructed as you exhale.