• Helper T cells precipitate the production of antibodies by B cells and also produce substances that activate other T cells. • Regulatory/Suppressor T cells suppress the response of B cells and other T cells to antigens. (d) Explain how T-cells interact with B-cells as part of the immune response in the human body include in your answer a discussion of the mechanism that allow these interactions Although antibodies can recognize an antigen and lock onto it, they are not capable of destroying it without help. That's the job of the T cells, which are part of the system that destroys antigens that have been tagged by antibodies or cells that have been infected or somehow changed. (Some T cells are actually called "killer cells.")
Various chemotactic agents make the endothelium sticky for white blood cells, including neutrophils which recognize antigens via toll receptors and phagocytize the antigens and empty lysosome enzymes into the phagosome. They also release cytokines and chemokines leading to the recruitment of macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells also phagocytize the antigen, but after digestion, they present the fragments of antigen polypeptide on MHC class II molecules on the surface. The APCs move through the lymph to the lymph nodes to present the antigen to T cells. Both the presented antigen and the MHC II receptor it is presented on has to be specific for the T cell which has a CD4 binding site for the
Cell-mediated immunity aims to destroy either foreign or host cells that have become infected by a pathogen while antibody mediated immunity sends out antibodies to “mark” pathogens outside of the host cell(s) for later destruction. (Thompson, 2013, p. 319) 2. Describe the events that occur during the inflammatory response. Explain the
The cardiac cycle is vital in all organisms with a heart, to pump blood round the body. There are phases of the cardiac cycle; systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation). The heart consists of 4 chambers, 2 being the atria at the top of the heart and the other 2 being the ventricles at the bottom of the heart. Systole occurs separately in the atria and ventricles and diastole occurs simultaneously in all 4 chambers. The cardiac cycle is controlled by electrical waves that spread throughout the heart.
P4: Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body. Cardiovascular System This system transports materials to the liver and body cells through the bloodstream that is pumped by the heart. Blood Blood is a liquid tissue made up of; plasma, platelets, white and red blood cells and is necessary for every part of the body. The blood contains many different materials and cells and there is fluid called plasma which contains many substances dissolved in it. Plasma carries food from the stomach to cells but carries waste from the cells to the kidneys and intestine.
When a B cell reacts, it binds, engulfs and processes that antigen. Specificity, Diversity and Immunological memory are all parts of the Clonal Selection theory. Embryos contain many different lymphocytes, which are genetically programmed to recognize a particular antigen and make antibodies to destroy it. If the lymphocyte encounters and recognizes it after development is complete, it divides repeatedly to produce a clone. If during development it encounters its programmed antigen as part of a normal host substance, the lymphocyte is somehow destroyed.
Here it attaches to the hemoglobin molecules inside red blood cells. The red blood cells are carried by the blood vessels to all parts of the body. The hemoglobin releases oxygen in the periphery, and picks up carbon dioxide (CO2). The CO2 attached to the hemoglobin molecules in the red blood cells is then transported to the lungs, where it diffuses across the walls into the alveoli, and is breathed out. When your blood gets to your lungs, the oxygen from your lungs gets put into your bloodstream.
“Lorenzo’s Oil” Alternate Assignment Answer the following questions in complete sentences. You may type into this file or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. Use this link to help you complete this task: www.myelin.org 1) Describe what Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is and how it relates to our genetics unit. ALD is a rapidly progressive X-linked genetic disorder marked by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in all tissues and body fluids, with a preference for the brain and the adrenal glands. This buildup leads to inflammation of the brain and erosion of the white matter of the central nervous system and the adrenal glands.
Composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels, the cardiovascular system is responsible for the circulation of blood through the body, transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other vital elements needed to maintain the health of cells and tissues (“Cardiopulmonary”). Made up of four chambers, two on each side, the heart’s primary job is to pump oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. The first two chambers, the left and right atrium, are located in the upper part of the heart and collects blood as it cycles through. The second two chambers, the left and right ventricles, are located in the bottom part of the heart, and they are responsible for pumping blood out of the heart. Important for blood circulation, arteries and veins make up the vascular system.