Carbon Compounds Essay

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INTRODUCTION In organic chemistry , there exist a divalent chemical unit consisting of a carbon (C) and an oxygen (O) atom which is connected by a double bond , called carbonyl compounds . The carbonyl compou nds are of utmost importance to the organic chemistry. They are consti tuents of fabrics, flavouring, plastics and drugs. This group is a constitu ent of carboxylic acids , esters, anhydrides , acyl halides , amides and quinines and is the characteristic functional group or the reactive group of aldehydes and ketones. O O O O || || || || C C C C R H R R´ R OH R X O O O O || || || || C C C C R O R R OR´ R NH₂ STRUCTURE The carbonyl carbon atom is sp2hybridized and forms three sigma (σ) bonds. The fourth valence electron of the carbon remains in its p- orbital and forms a π - bond with oxygen by overlap with p - orbital of oxygen. In addition the oxygen atom also has two non bonding electron pairs. Thus the carbonyl carbon and the free atoms attached to it lie in the same plane and

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