Canine Diabetes Mellitus Essay

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Canine Diabetes Mellitus “Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism due to the relative or absolute insulin deficiency (Merck 394). Certain cells in the body depend on insulin to transport glucose. When an animal has diabetes mellitus these cells either never receive the stimulus or do not interpret it properly. A couple reasons why this happens is because the pancreas will not release enough insulin, there are no insulin receptors or not enough receptors to translate the signal (Hand 851). There are many types of diabetes in canines, however, “50% of diabetic dogs have type 1 diabetes” (Rand 2072S). Type 1 diabetes also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) happens when the beta cells of the pancreas are slowly destroyed and eventually lose their ability to secrete insulin. It takes about 75% non functional beta cells to cause diabetes and render the dog dependent of insulin treatment (Hand851). Type 2 diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is not prevalent in dogs. Insulin resistance and/ or dysfunctional beta cells causes it (851). Another type of diabetes that is common in dogs is impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes (type IGT) (Hand 851). Gestational diabetes occurs when a female dog is in the 30-35 day of gestation or the diestrus phase of a non-pregnant cycle. The increase of progesterone causes glucose intolerance and stimulates the mammary gland to produce a growth hormone, which also causes insulin resistance (Rand 2077S). This may account for the reason that canine diabetes is seen twice as often in females than in males (Merck 394). There are no lab tests available to identify the underlying cause of canine diabetes; although there are a few theories. It is believed that there might be a genetic predisposition similar to that seen in human type 1 diabetes (Rand 2076S). This

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