Caliban, a man of Nature

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Caliban, a man of Nature In The Tempest, Caliban is described as a savage, a treacherous slave and a villain. Caliban is the son of the “damned witch Sycorax” (1.2.263) and is taught by Prospero. In return, he conspired against Prospero. However, a large number of critics have written about Caliban, who has less than 200 lines in the play. Many critics of The Tempest have depicted Caliban in various ways—from the noble North American Indian, to African, to South American Indian, or Mexican. Alden Vaughan argues in his article, “Shakespeare’s Indian: The Americanization of Caliban,” that modern literary history assumes that Shakespeare The Tempest is about the English colonization of America. He says the most universally accepted idea is that Caliban symbolized the Indians who lost their land to European intruders. In the Indian or African interpretation, most of the critics judge Caliban’s behavior from the view of Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s culture is superior to all others (Ferraro 15). Instead of using Ethnocentrism, we should view Caliban using Cultural Relativism, because he belongs to the natural world, what he thinks and what he does should not be measured by “civilized” men, but by his own cultural morals. In “‘This Island’s Mine’: Caliban and Colonislism,” Trevor Criffiths introduces that, prior to the nineteenth century, Caliban was described only as a preternatural being. In 1838, Macready wrote an analysis of Caliban along colonial lines. Later, Caliban is identified textually with anti-slavery campaigns. In the later nineteenth-century, it was very difficult to part between Caliban “as native, as proletarian, and as missing link.” Along with the “missing link,” Caliban has been described between an ape and the lowest of savages, making Caliban, the dispossessed native, a sympathetic character for audiences. During and after the First World

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