In recent World, Management is the basis of organization and one of the most important facet of development. Both theory and history holds important place in the world of management and organization.
"Management is the organizational process that includes strategic planning, setting objectives, managing resources, deploying the human and financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measuring results.”
Most organizations have three levels of management. First-line, middle, and top managers.
While first-line managers are responsible for the day-to-day supervision of non-managerial employees, middle managers are responsible for developing and utilizing organizational resources efficiently and effectively, and top managers have cross departmental responsibility.
There are three main kinds of managerial skills which include conceptual, human, and technical.
Organizations divide managers into departments according to their job responsibilities because of the need to develop and build technical skills. "Top managers must establish appropriate goals for the entire organization and verify that department managers are utilizing resources to achieve those goals."
Scientific Management Theory (1890-1940)
At the turn of the century, the most notable organizations were large and industrialized. Often they included ongoing, routine tasks that manufactured a variety of products. The United
States highly prized scientific and technical matters, including careful measurement and specification of activities and results. Management tended to be the same. Frederick Taylor
developed the :scientific management theory” which espoused this careful specification and measurement of all organizational tasks. Tasks were standardized as much as possible.
Workers were rewarded and punished. This approach appeared to work well for organizations with assembly lines and other mechanistic, routinized activities.
Bureaucratic Management Theory (1930-1950)
Max Weber embellished...