Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory and Predisposition to Bullying
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory consists of five relationship systems.
• Microsystem: This system has a daily impact. It consists of the settings in school, neighborhood, family, friends, and spirituality-based influences that make up a child’s encounters on a daily basis. In this area, the bullies are likely to be anxious, suffer depression, and have lower sense of self. The adult(s) in the child’s environment may have low self-esteem and maladaptive social relationships.
• Mesosystem: This system involves the interactions a child has with the factors present in the microsystem. The interactions here are negative, for the most part, which contributes to the factors displayed in the microsystem. Relationships with parents and peers are poor, as are relationships with authority-figures. Having a best friend lowers the odds that a child will be a bully, victim, or bully-victim.
• Exosystem: In the exosystem, the child’s socioeconomic status (SES) and his/her community have influence on development. This includes whether there is proper supervision and adequate resources in the child’s environment.
• Macrosystem: This system encompasses the child’s culture, i.e., customs, schooling, and government involvement in child welfare. Here, the child may exhibit signs of depression, be delinquent, and become adult criminals. Ethnicity plays the largest role in this system of development as pertains to bullying. Age and gender seem less important than culture does. Those living in homes where English is not the primary language have lower incidences of bullying.
• Chronosystem: “Chrono” can be thought of as “time.” This system takes the historical happenings and how they relate to the society in which a child lives. This system also includes changes over time in the other systems. A change in one system may be reflected in another system. A victim may become a bully-victim....