In her essay “Kiddy Thinks,” Alison Gopnik discusses the importance of the cognitive development of children in the first few years of their life. She also attempts to break the traditional view that children, in their early stages, think quite differently than adults. Gopnik uses a logical standard of evaluation to provide information on the different stages children go through when developing important cognitive skills. She supports her information with a variety of experiments as a researcher, and personal experiences as a parent. Unfortunately, she concludes her essay with political and social issues, which weakens her argument as it drifts away from her purpose.
Running head: OBERSAVATION THEORIES OF ERICKSON, PIAGET, AND VYGOTSKY Observation Theories of Erickson, Piaget, and Vygotsky Shakeitha Lewis Vista College Observation Theories of Erickson, Piaget, and Vygotsky I know that this observation is to observer a child, at this time I have no one to observe. However I will be able to give information on each theory. Erik Erikson proposed a theory of psychosocial development. He believed development occurs throughout the life span. His theory provided new insights into the formation of a healthy personality.
|Chapter 1 Summary | Child Development as a Scientific, Applied, and Interdisciplinary Field What is child development, and what factors stimulated expansion of the field? • Child development is the study of human constancy and change from conception through adolescence. It is part of a larger discipline known as developmental psychology or human development, which includes the entire lifespan. Research on child development has been stimulated by both scientific curiosity and social pressures to better the lives of children. Our knowledge is interdisciplinary-it has grown through the combined efforts of people from many fields of study.
Erikson for his theory of psychosocial development, who believed that personality develops in a series of stages. However, each author has their own view regarding the educational implication of the various processes, as well as, the role of various environmental components. The following articles (Horn 2009), will attempt to support and the educational implications of each theory. The articles highlight the major theories, research and opinions of Piaget, Vygotsky, and Erik Erikson’ on how children develop and learn. The first article by (Webb 1980) talks about Piaget belief that within each person there is an internal self-regulation mechanism that responds to environmental stimulation by constantly fitting new experiences into existing cognitive structures called schemas developmental stages in teaching.
Even if the conflict of a certain stage is or is not effectively resolved, the person is influenced by both genetic motivation and the strains of society in subsequent stages. Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development reflects upon how the development of personality from childhood to adulthood is influenced by outside factors, parents and society (Boden, 2010 ). The following are the eight interconnected stages Erikson believed all humans must undergo over
The study of human development began with Darwin and other evolutionists. Darwin thought if he studied human development he could further prove his theory of evolution (Boyd & Bee, 2006). The lifespan perspective says that several important changes take place throughout development. This lifelong process consists of a development of humans that is multidimensional, multi-directional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual. The development involves growth, maintenance and regulation.
Finally it provides examples of the practical use of behaviourism as a clinical intervention. Psychology: History and Perspectives Defining Behaviourism The development of psychological theories throughout history has been based on the efforts of, many individuals. Each unique way of thinking and the ability to synthesize information provided by one researcher to another has been the building blocks to the body of psychological knowledge that is known today. This essay will show how the behaviourism perspective has contributed to this body of knowledge. It will trace its origins showing the principles outlined by the main theoretical proponents.
According to (Learning Theories.com, 2008), “Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood. According to Erikson’s theory, every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle.” The eight stages to psychosocial development in one person’s whole life are Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, and Integrity vs. Despair (Cervone & Pervin, 2010).
Eight Stages of Theory The eight stages of Erikson’s psychosocial theory are, stage one; trust versus mistrust. This stage is the infancy stage, and the goal at this stage is to develop hope. An infant relies completely on his or her caregivers, which creates trust, affection and the reliance on his or her caregivers. A lack of proper affection can lead to mistrust. Stage two is autonomy versus shame and doubt.
• Freud (Psychoanalytic):- He believed that the personality develops through a series of stages. The idea that early experiences affect adult life has importance for anyone caring for a child. He proposed that individuals are driven by motives and emotions of which they are largely unaware. He believed that we shaped by early experiences in life. Freudian thinking is deeply embedded in our culture and constantly influences our view of human nature, but his ideas are now widely