Brown Sequard Essay

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Brown-Séquard syndrome is a rare spinal disorder that results from an injury to one side of the spinal cord in which the spinal cord is damaged but is not severed completely. It is usually caused by an injury to the spine in the region of the neck or back. Brown-Séquard syndrome affects males and females in equal numbers. More than 500 cases have been reported to date. The incidence of Brown-Séquard syndrome has been estimated to be 2% of all traumatic spinal cord injuries. The annual incidence of all forms of spinal cord injury is estimated to be 30-40 per 1,000,000 people.1 Brown-Séquard syndrome can be caused by any mechanism resulting in damage to one side of the spinal cord. The most common cause remains traumatic injury, often a penetrating mechanism, such as a stab or gunshot wound or a unilateral facet fracture and dislocation due to a motor vehicle accident or fall.2,3 Non traumatic causes of Brown-Séquard syndrome have also been reported, including the following: Tumor, Multiple sclerosis, Disk herniation 4,Cervical Spondylosis, Herniation of the spinal cord through a dural defect, Epidural hematoma, Vertebral artery dissection, Transverse myelitis, Radiation, Type II decompression sickness, Intravenous drug use, Tuberculosis, Ossification of the ligamentum flavum5 , Meningitis, Empyema, Herpes zoster, Herpes simplex, Syphilis, Ischemia, Hemorrhage. Symptoms of Brown-Séquard syndrome usually appear after an affected individual experiences a trauma to the neck or back. First symptoms are usually loss of the sensations of pain and temperature, often below the area of the trauma. There may also be loss of bladder and bowel control. Weakness and atrophy of muscles in the affected area may occur. Paralysis ipsilateral of the wound. Paralysis may be permanent if diagnosis is delayed. Individuals with this syndrome have a good chance of recovering a large

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