The process of photosynthesis is when plants use the energy in sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates. Photosynthesis occurs inside a cell organelle called the chloroplast. The chloroplast contains green pigments called chlorophyll, which capture the energy in sunlight. The equation for photosynthesis is as follows: Light 6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2 (Moran 2006) The raw materials needed for photosynthesis are carbon dioxide from the air (taken in through the leaves) and water, usually from the soil (taken in through the roots). The two combine initially to produce simple sugars and oxygen.
c.2 grams KI. d.10 mL of 2M H2SO4. 5.Mix the ingredients in the Erlenmeyer flask completely. 6.Immediately begin to titrate with thiosulfate. 7.Titrate until the solution gives off a pale yellow color.
The leaves uses the stomata to allow Carbon dioxide (CO2) enter and exit the pores of the leaves. The chlorophyll inside the leaf cell absorbs the energy from the sun. Photosynthesis is divided in light dependent and dark dependent process. The light process captures the solar energy to make ATP and NADPH. The dark reaction happens in the Calvin Cycle which uses the ATP to make glucose.
Brad Hopkins CHM 145 A Shadi Abu-Baker Cheng Guo Alex Hudson 10/10/2011 Experiment #4: Ionization Constants of Weak Acids Qualitative Data: The indicator dye that we used was Blue (1). During the qualitative analysis I was able to use the shades of the buffer solutions after the dye was added to determine an estimate of the pKa of the dye. This is because according to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, the pH = pKa when there are equal amounts of the forms of due present. To determine when the amounts were equal, observations were made on the dye coloration. When the KH2PO4 was of a greater volume the resulting dye was yellow in color; when the K2HPO4 was in greater volume the resulting dye color was dark blue in color.
This is the molecule which makes photosynthesis possible, by passing its energized electrons on to molecules which will manufacture sugars. All plants, algae, and cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain chlorophyll "a". A second kind of chlorophyll is chlorophyll "b", which occurs only in “green algae” and in the plants. Bibliography: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss3/pigments.html Conclusion: I learned various things from this lab. For instance, I learned how pigments absorbed strongly move slowly and pigments absorbed weakly move the fastest.
Cell Respiration This lab is about cell respiration. Seeds germinate by utilizing the stored energy in the seed through respiration. The cell mitochondria combine oxygen in the air with the carbohydrates that are stored in the seed to generate chemical energy and pass off carbon dioxide as waste. This is the chemical formula of that process: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy In this lab the effect of temperature on respiration is being studied, trying to discover the interdependence between increasing temperature and respiration rate of seeds cells. In the experiment we use three “respirometers” for each temperature.
Light energy comes from the sun. The oxygen produced is released into the air from the leaves. The glucose produced can be turned into other substances, such as starch, which is used as a store of energy. This energy can be released by respiration. ** Note that photosynthesis is a reduction-oxidation reaction, just like respiration (see the primer on redox reactions from the lecture on Microbes).
The enzyme captures photons of light to stimulate electrons to an excited state. Then, the high-energy electron will transferred through a variety of coenzymes and cofactors to reduce plastoquinone to plastoquinol. The electrons loss in PSII is replaced by oxidizing water to form hydrogen ions and molecular oxygen. The splitting of water provides H+, electron and release oxygen as by-product. Therefore we can determine the rate of photosynthesis by the change in oxygen concentration in the experiment.