In 1928, a Scottish biologist named Alexander Fleming made a serendipitous discovery of the antibiotic penicillin. On observation of the Staphylococci culture plates left for several weeks, he noticed contamination by fungi (Brown, 2005). Around the fungi moulds were zones of inhibition, suggestive of an agent or substance containing anti-bacterial properties being produced it. During further analysis, he realised that only the Penicillium mould produces this substance. The substance was then consequently named Penicillin and became available on the market in 1942 (Brown, 2005).
Only to rear their destructive nature as a persons’ immune system becomes more fragile. Some germs are so potent it takes several vaccinations throughout ones’ lifetime to stop the incidence of infection all-together. Vaccinations work by exposing a healthy immune system to a small ineffective or non-living derivative of a bacteria or virus; allowing a persons’ immune system to build up anti-bodies to the weak version of the germ. As more parents chose not to vaccinate their children the
CASE STUDY Eli Lilly: Developing Cymbalta Facts: Eli Lilly and Company Upon serving the Union Army in the Civil War, Col Eli Lilly purchased a laboratory on Perl Street in Indianapolis and established Eli Lilly & Company in 1876. The company first success in the pharmaceutical industry was creating a gelatin-coating pill for easy swallowing and Iletin, the first mass-produced insulin that improved the treatment of diabetes. The company gains national and international notoriety when it developed a drug called Prozac. Prozac was patented and became the number one drug of choice to treat depression. In 1988 the company was commonly referred to as the Prozac Company because of it direct –to consumer advertising which generated sales over 2 billion in a single year.
However, the amount of Staphylococcus aureus that is antibiotic resistance gradually increased, until the year of 1950, the number rose to 40% of the patients, and 80% of the patients until the year 1960. The mechanism that made the bacteria become resistant to the antibiotic is that, a mutation to an extremely small amount of Staphylococcus aureus. From this mutation the bacteria began to produce an enzyme called penicillinase, which it breaks the molecule within penicillin that makes the antibiotic to function. Consequently, this antibiotic become ineffective and the bacteria eventually survived. This kind of Staphylococcus aureus is called “MRSA”, referred to methicillin-resistant S. aureus.
degree in 1869 from the University of Virginia and spending several years working in the field of public health in New York City, Reed joined the Army Medical Department (1875). In 1898, he headed a board that identified typhoid fever as the cause of much sickness and death at the camps where troops gathered to train for the Spanish‐American War. By establishing human waste as the source of contamination, the board made possible effective public health measures to prevent future epidemics. When, in 1900, another board headed by Reed proved that yellow fever, much dreaded by soldiers sent to Cuba, was carried by a mosquito and identified the specific mosquito, successful efforts to reduce this threat to public health also became possible. Reed's accomplishments resulted not only from his personal skills as a research scientist but from the disciplined world in which he worked: medical officers were often better able than their civilian counterparts to conduct the studies necessary to identify both major diseases that threatened public health and the means by which they spread in civilian and military communities alike.
Today the actual CSF can be obtained by performing a lumbar puncture procedure to extract the fluid from the lower part of the spine. (Agamanolis, 2008, Ch. 14) Walter Essex Wynter (1860-1945) who was educated at Epsom College in Surrey England and also as a Physician at Middlesex Hospital both in London, England in 1901 was the first to indicate the idea of extracting the CSF fluid to relieve pressure to treat four medical cases. (Pearce, 2003, p.202) He wrote a Lancet paper describing his cases. Case one being a three year old boy who was treated in 1889 for Meningitis with and ear infection that followed, in 1890 case two being an eleven year old girl, case three being a two year old boy, and case four being a 13 month old girl who were all treated for Tuberculous.
The vaccine is the first of its kind to build immunity against two strains of HPV, which lead to 70% of cervical cancer cases in the United States. Merck was on a roll until parents, who were being threatened with state mandates forcing their little girls to get three doses started. Gardasil vaccine is perhaps one of the most controversial vaccines to date. (Lopes) Let’s not forget that Merck is the same company that brought us Vioxx, and knew or should
We have already stopped Joe Camel so we will use our experience with him to apprehend “The Killer Clown”. Forty years ago lung cancer and other diseases plagued the United States, creating a major health problem. So in 1965 the U.S. Congress came up with the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, which banned all advertising of cigarettes in the broadcast media, and also required a health warning on all tobacco products. Four years later the Congress created the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, which banned smoking in certain places, made buying cigarettes harder for children, and also significantly increased excise taxes on tobacco (Engelhard). These Acts where put into place because the health of the American people was at stake and in my opinion this is what needs to be done to fast food.
The second writing technique that the author uses is historical. When it comes to talk about history that polio creates, it is important to mention historic facts. For example, in the Unites States, polio struck down nearly 58,000 children in 1952 alone (paragraph 30). Also, in 1961, thirty years after Albert Sabin began studying polio; his oral vaccine was introduced in the Unites States and distributed widely. In the nearly forty years since, polio has been eradicated in the western Hemisphere, The World Health Organization reported, adding that with a full scale effort, polio could be eliminated from the rest of the world by the
The first vaccinations started in the 18th century by Edward Jenner, he had heard that people that had cowpox, which was not to serious for humans, were immune to smallpox. So Jenner took pus from cowpox sore and inoculated a boy, six weeks later he took smallpox pus and inoculated the boy again, and the boy did not get smallpox (4). Later Louis Pasteur using this same technique developed a rabies vaccine, and by the nineteenth century vaccines were considered a matter of national prestige, and compulsory laws were passed. Even though some people think vaccinations are not safe, this is nothing new. Opposition to vaccines has existed since the earliest vaccination campaigns.