Brain Damaged People Research (Stm and Ltm Case Studies)

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Cognitively Damaged Individuals: Case Studies Memory Loss H.M. In 1953, Henry Molaison had an operation that removed both his hippocampi, to reduce his epileptic seizures which he had suffered from for many years. The surgeons had no idea of the consequences his surgery would bring. He was left with a severe memory impairment, as our brains use our hippocampi to make memories, so without both of his, HM suffered almost global amnesia. He was able to talk normally and recall events and people from his life before the surgery. However, he was unable to retain any new information or lay new memories in LTM. This lead psychologists to the ‘multi-store model’, as his (and many other case studies and observations) pointed to a clear distinction between LTM and STM. K.F. Patient K.F. was a man who was involved in a motorbike accident. Due to this, he suffered with brain trauma, which caused him to lose his short-term memory. He could not store short term information in his memory, including his ‘phonological loop’, which plays a major role in working memory and attention, although his long term memory was still intact and could still store in his brain. This is the opposite of H.M.’s case, as he could access STM, not LTM. KF was among the participants of psychological tests in subjects were presented with a list of numbers and asked to recall them shortly thereafter, was found to be able to remember only a single digit. It was also nearly impossible for him to learn new vocabulary, even though he could function perfectly well in other respects, again due to the STM damage, as whatever memory (such as new vocabulary) would be kept for 1-2 seconds, after which it would have to be repeated to be remembered. Clive Wearing Clive Wearing was a talented musician and broadcaster, who was highly educated. However, when he contracted an infection named ‘encephalitis’,

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