Each of these lobes has different functions from each other. On the other hand, the neurotransmitters are the information carriers, they carry electrochemical signals to and from the brain throughout the entire body in human beings. Then, we have the nervous system which can actually be divided into two parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) where the brain and spinal cord are parts of the CNS. The PNS can still be divided into two specific parts, the somatic nervous system (SNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). While the SNS directs the movements of the skeletal muscles, the ANS regulates involuntary processes such as the heart beating, breathing, blood pressure, and blood sugar level.
Hormones, which are chemical messengers, transfer information from one gland to another for important body functions. When the receptor is stimulated, the cell responds to the hormone in specific ways. Endocrine hormones are secreted into the bloodstream, while exocrine hormones are secreted into a duct and go through paracrine signaling. Hormones have many different effects on the body such as mood swings, metabolism regulation, control of the reproductive system, hunger cravings and many others. The glands which are involved in the endocrine system
Hemispheric specialization refers to the dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language, emotions, motor control and so on ( Feldman, 2009). The brain is a part of the central nervous system which is the subdivision of the nervous system. Its main role is to process sensory information from various parts of the body to make them meaningful. The brain receives sensory information from all parts of the body through the spinal cord (Passer & Smith, 2009). Basically, the brain is divided into three parts.
It occurs when the five sensory organs, thus eyes, ears, nose, tongue and skin absorb energy from a physical stimulus in the environment. These sense organs register the stimulus with the physical properties, decodes it, and transform it into a neural signal that is then transmitted to the brain. Sensory receptors then convert this energy into neural impulses and send them to the brain. The five human senses all operate similarly, but each receives different information and sends it to a specialized region in the brain. Therefore, different sensations occur because each sense activates a different part of the brain.
Axons of mitral cells pass directly back to the olfactory cortex on the ipsilateral side. Anterior commissure is a small commissure that connects the two halves of the olfactory system. Olfactory cortex is the portions of the cerebral cortex that receive direct projections from the olfactory bulb (via mitral cell axons) are collectively referred to as the olfactory cortex. It is located on the base of the frontal lobe and medial aspect of the temporal lobe. On the base of the frontal lobe it overlies the anterior perforated substance through which the striate arteries enter the interior of the brain.
It has widespread connections with the rest of the forebrain and the midbrain. Partly through nerves and partly through hypothalamic hormones, the hypothalamus conveys messages to the pituitary gland, altering its release of hormones (Kalat, 2003). According to “American Accreditation Health Commission,” The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycle.
Noradrenergic neurons project bilaterally (send signals to both sides of the brain) from the locus ceruleus along distinct pathways to many locations, including the cerebral cortex, limbic system, and the spinal cord, forming a neurotransmitter system. Norepinephrine is also released from postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, to transmit the fight-or-flight response in each tissue respectively. The adrenal medulla can also be counted to such postganglionic nerve cells, although they release norepinephrine into the blood. Norepinephrine system The noradrenergic neurons in the brain form a neurotransmitter system, that, when activated, exerts effects on large areas of the brain. The effects are alertness and arousal, and influences on the reward system.
The brain is a powerful organ if you understand its full potential. The brain has two main communication systems, the nervous system and the endocrine system. According to Zimbardo, Johnson, & McCann (2012) “Out of the two, the fast acting nervous system carries messages in pulses of electrical and chemical energy through the body; the slower endocrine system sends follow up messages that support and sustain the response initiated by the nervous system”. Neurons are the building block of the nervous system. Sensory, Motor, and Interneuron are the three major classes of neurons.
Parietal lobe - responsible for sensory information from the body, also where letters are formed, putting things in order and spatial awareness. Occipital lobe- responsible for processing information related to vision Cerebrum lobe - biggest part of the Brain its role is memory, attention, thought, and our consciousness, senses and movement. Hippocampus = responsible for memory forming, organizing and storing and emotions. 3. Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia.