Brain Essay

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Biology II FINAL EXAM Study Guide Answer the following questions using your notes, handouts, and any papers in your graded folders. Unit #8: The Cardiovascular System 1. Compare and contrast hemolymph and blood. 2. Compare and contrast open and closed circulatory systems. 3. Describe the circulatory system of arthropods, mollusks, earthworms, and cephalopods. Compare this to vertebrate circulatory systems. 4. Compare and contrast the circulatory system (structurally/make-up) of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. 5. Describe the structural make up of the human heart. (location in body, appearance, tissue layers, etc). 6. Describe the THREE main types of blood vessels. (structure and function). 7. Describe the brief steps of blood as it flows and travels from the heart to the lungs, back to the heart, and then to the body and its tissues. 8. Describe blood flow with regards to oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. (tell me when and where it goes for each). 9. Describe the TWO different valve TYPES, and then describe two examples for each. (one example for SL). 10. Describe the difference between the pulmonary and systemic circuits. 11. What is the SA node? AV node? 12. What is the difference between SYSTOLE and DIASTOLE? How are they related to blood pressure? 13. What is an ECG? Describe its components and draw and label a typical wave pattern. 14. Label the diagram of the heart and its structures. Also, trace the blood flow of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Unit #9- The Respiratory System 1. What are the main functions of the respiratory system? 2. Describe the three main phases of respiration. 3. Compare and contrast the various respiratory surfaces discussed. (i.e. body, gills, tracheal system, lungs) 4. The upper and lower respiratory tracts are

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