# Boyle's Law

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Gas Laws A gas law is described as a mathematical generalization of the relationships among the amount, pressure, temperature, and volume of a gas (p 168). Boyle’s law p. 168 Of the several relationships that exist among gas law variables, the first to be discovered relates gas pressure to gas volume. It was formulated over 300 years ago, in 1662, by the British chemist an physicist Robert Boyle. Boyle’s law states that the volume of a fixed mount of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure applied to the gas if the temperature is kept constant. This means that if the pressure on the gas increases, the volume decreases proportionally; conversely, if the pressure decreses, the volume increases. Doubling the pressure cuts the volume in half; tripling the pressure reduces the volume to one-third its original value; quadrupling the pressure reduces the volume to one-fourth its original value. The mathematical equation for Boyle’s law is P1 x V1 = P2 X V2 Boyle’s law is consistent with kinetic molecular theory. The pressure that a gas exerts results from collisions of the gas molecules with the sides of the container. If the volume of a container holding a specific number of gas is increased, the total wall area of the container will also increase, and the nu Charles’s law p 170 The relationship between the temperature and the volume of a gas at constant pressure is called Charles’s law after the French scientist Jacques Charles. This law was discovered in 1787, over 100 years after the discovery of Boyle’s law. Charles’s law states that the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant. Whenever a direct proportion exists between two quantities, one increases when the other increases and one decreseases when the other decreases. The direct-proportion relationship of