Children with a lack of cultural capital are more likely to use the restricted code (limited vocabulary) which disadvantages them at school as they feel excluded and are therefore less successful. Working-class children typically use the restricted code. Bourdieu argues that cultural capital affects academic achievement as it ties in with educational capital. Middle-class children with cultural capital are better equipped to meet the demands of the school curriculum.
In turn, black pupils felt teachers underestimated their ability and picked on them. Gilborn and Youdell conclude that much of the conflict between white teachers and black pupils stem from the racial stereotypes that teachers hold, rather than the pupil’s actual behaviour. This disadvantages pupils because they are treated differently, which could result in their failure and even exclusion from school. As Jenny Bourne 1994) found that schools tend to see black boys as a threat and label them
Article 3(Klinger) Children's Perceptions of Aggressive and Gender-Specific Content in toy commercials. All commercials target a certain audience for either boys or girls. In a study from the article, it said that Both girl and boys rated male toys as the more desirable and most aggressive of toys than female ones. This can be concerning since toys for kids are going to appeal to a child differently. A girl could like boy toys more, where a boy could like girl toys.
There may be a link between gender and the level of exercise participation outside of schools for males and females due to the gender appropriateness perceived within the school setting of different sporting activities. Background Early reports have provided evidence that when females are compared to males, females tend to lack confidence and are expectant of a lesser performance in most achievement contexts. For most task males carry a more positive attitude. The gender differences that have been found in earlier studies, for example that body image and social factors are stronger motives for women to partake in physical activity, and that competition and competence motives are more valued by men, are likely to have emerged due to expectations of society of proper behaviour for men and women. Men are expected to be competitive, and women are expected to be yielding and concerned about, not competing with others (Bem, 1981).When a particular activity perceived as gender inappropriate males and females success rates decrease.
Whereas girls are dressed more to be cute/ pretty representing their subordination and dependency because their clothing is not as liberating as the boys they need to depend on others to help them get around. Gender is meaningless removed from social context. From birth children are taught through a dialectical process of acculturation that males are superior to females. The acculturation expresses male dominance which serves to validate the hierarchy. This hierarchy is persevered still in today’s society; examples are presented in advertisement,
The cultural capital that is acquired from birth can be used in the structuralised education system and it is seen in these institutes that the more cultural capital that is accumulated will create better achievements and outcomes for them later in life (Bowles and Jensen 2001). Children from the dominate(upper) class are seen to be at more of an advantaged in schools than the children coming from low socio-economical backgrounds, as they are exposed to an elite culture at home(Tzanakis 2011). With this brings in to question whether education does promote social change and give opportunities to the less privileged or does the education institutes tend to keep in place existing social separation and maintain the disadvantages relating to certain people? The education system can promote social change by initiating a change in outlook and attitude (sociology guide 2011) for example if a child was growing up in a household that believed that an education is not important, as there is government benefits that are in place to support the unemployed, may begin to change their outlook on education and their attitude towards the government
Katherine Watson, the teacher, challenges the girls by portraying liberal ideas to the students. Their choices in life enables Watson to teach about the freedom and choice. Ms. Watson in The Mona Lisa Smile, shows how women’s lives were controlled by social structures, and examines their attitudes as a reflection of society, which is dominated my male figures. In this case Ms. Watson tries to empower the school culture and social structure. James banks defines it as a “process of restructuring the culture and the organization of a school to bring about education equality and empowerment” (Banks, 40-41).
In the essay “Why Boys Don’t Play With Dolls’ by Katha Pollit she takes a dismissive attitude towards any kind of study or theory which suggests that there are innate differences in behavior between boys and girls. The blame for children’s gender differences and their personalities is put on their upbringing and the culture in which they grew up. There is no doubt that our society encourages and exaggerates gender stereotypes through things like the messages put out by the media and the toys we play with as kids, but boys and girls would probably still act differently if they were brought up in a neutral environment. In the article “The Gender Blurr” by Deborah Blum she says “Do the ways we amplify physical and behavioral differences in childhood shape who we become as adults?’ The answer is yes it does influence the way children are raised and the way they deal with their lives as they grow older. Gender roles vary.
In contrast, arguments among girls tended to end disagreements with behaviour that avoids them, while boys learn to deal with disagreements in a direct manner. Pitcher and Schultz (1993) in observing young children's play found a significant gender difference, with boy dyads marked by more negative
The word gender has been used to refer cognitive and social differences between males and females and sex refers to biological and physical differences. The process in which children acquire the values, motives and behaviors viewed as appropriate for males or females is referred to as gender typing. Children begin by developing gender based beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate, these beliefs are derived largely from gender stereotypes which are beliefs that members of entire culture hold about the attitudes and behaviors acceptable and appropriate for each sex they say the way male and female should act and should be. Gender roles are composites of distinctive behaviors that males and females in a culture actually exhibit and thus are essentially the reflections of a culture’s gender stereotypes, Gender identity is also developed early in life a perception of themselves as either masculine or feminine and having the characteristics and interest that are appropriate to their gender. There are few gender differences in aggression in infancy, boys are more likely than girls to investigate and be involved in aggressive incidents by the time they were toddlers.