26 Brown J, Cohen P, Johnson JG, et al. Childhood abuse and neglect: specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1999; 38(12): 1490-6. 27 Krug EG, Kresnow M, Peddicord JP, et al. Suicide after natural disasters.
Traub (2009) discusses the reliability of Dissociative Identity Disorder identification and categorization. Many believe that the DID is a symptom after a traumatic event, he states that “… the disorder is a defensive response that results naturally from continuous and tremendous childhood trauma, particularly from physical and sexual abuse” (Traub, 2009, p. 348). He talks about different sections, addressing whether Dissociative Identity Disorders are reliable diagnosis.. In the category of childhood trauma, Traub (2009) talks about how many psychiatrists believe the cause of many of the DID cases are due to trauma when they were children, especially in those that deal with an accumulation of traumatic events. People that advocates for DID states that it is necessary for childhood trauma to be predecessor and cause of this particular disorder.
He called this idea monotropy. He stated that the infant has only one primary caregiver to whom the child will form an attachment. However this idea has been contradicted by other psychologists who say that a child can form attachments to more than one person, for example to their mother as well as their father. A key feature of Bowlby’s theory is that the attachment formed as a child provides the child with an internal working model of relationships, which will in turn guide relationship behaviour in the future. A secure child will develop a positive internal working model of itself because of the sensitive emotional care it has received from its primary caregiver.
* Provide intrapsychic conflicts that threaten the psychological health of normal people and provide nearly insurmountable obstacles for neurotics. 3. What was the hypothesis of horney regarding childhood experiences * Horney (1939) hypothesized that a difficult childhood is primarily responsible for neurotic needs. * “Later attitudes to others, then, are not repetitions of infantile ones but emanate from the character structure, the basis of which is laid in childhood” 4. Explain the four general ways in which people protect themselves from being alone in a hostile world.
Attachment theory, as postulated by John Bowlby, sought to achieve just that. Bowlby's aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would have on an infant's later development. Drawing on much work in the psychoanalytic literature, such as that of Freud and Harlow, Bowlby formulated the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure early in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a parent. A concept that Bowlby referred to as an internal working model. (Bowlby, 1969) Fonagy et al.
Bowlby's aim was to discover the consequences of difficulties in forming attachments in childhood, and the effects this would have on an infant's later development. Drawing on much work in the psychoanalytic literature, such as that of Freud and Harlow, Bowlby formulated the idea that infants develop a close emotional bond with an attachment figure early in life, and that the success or failure of this earliest of relationships lead the infant to form a mental representation that would have profound effects on their later relationships and their own success as a
Discuss the problems related with identifying and diagnosing Borderline Personality Disorder 1. INTRODUCTION The aim of this paper is to discuss the multitude of problems that complicate the identification and diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder. New Research on Borderline Personality Disorder is lagging far behind other disorders and the figures indicate that many cases still go undiagnosed which implies many cases never get the proper treatment they deserve (Gunderson, 2009 and Meyerson in Phend, 2009). 2. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER DEFINED 2.1 Define Personality Disorder A Personality Disorder can be “characterized by inflexible, long standing, and maladaptive personality traits that cause significant functional impairment”
Treatment planning includes a balance of both trauma and behavioral focal point, working on ongoing behavioral problems and behavioral crises, modify distorted thinking so that families could have the knowledge to transfer, and children can learn how to talk through their experiences. Results: Cognitive therapy also incorporated with behavioral therapy practice to manage the behavioral regulation problems that commonly happens in traumatized children. Conclusions: Treating trauma related behavioral problems is a crucial part of trauma-focused treatment and is achievable if practice is done accordingly. This practice is important due to the common nature of behavioral dilemma in traumatized children (Cohen, 2007). CBT 3 Cognitive behavioral therapy is generally psychotherapy and behavioral therapy combined.
Introduction: According to many studies it has been found that, “women who had experienced CSA(Childhood Sexual Abuse) involving sexual penetration or attempted sexual penetration were: (a) likely to be sexually victimized in adulthood; (b) more likely to have engaged in casual sex, unprotected sex, involuntary sexual abstinence; (c) reported fewer sexual rewards, more sexual costs, and lower sexual self-esteem.” (Lemieux & Byer, 2008, p.126) Also research shows, “CSA is associated with a variety of short and long-term negative consequences including depression, and anxiety, anger, poor self-esteem, substance abuse, eating disorders, and sexual re-victimization.” (Beitchman et al., 1992; Newman, Houskamp, Pollock, & Brier, 1996) All of which affect relationships within the individuals life. We see the effects of CSA in Finkelhor and Brown’s “Traumagenic Dynamics Model; in which the focus is directed to the effects of traumatic sexualization.” (Finkelhor & Browne, 1985) Traumatic sexualization is defined as, “process in which child sexuality, including those sexual feelings and sexual attitudes, is shaped in a developmentally inappropriate and interpersonal dysfunctional fashion as a result of sexual abuse” (Finkelhor & Browne, 1985, p.531). This “shaping” is
12/7/2013 Reni Childhood Trauma & Dissociative Identity Disorder Abnormal Psychology Fall PSYC Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Identity Disorder Dissociative identity disorder (DID), previously known as multiple personality disorder, is a severe form of dissociation; a mental process that produces a lack of connection in a person's thoughts, memories, feelings, actions, or sense of identity. DID is believed to be the effect of severe trauma suffered during childhood. It’s believed that experiencing extreme, repetitive physical, sexual, or emotional abuse causes the disassociation, and as a result, a coping mechanism develops – the individual dissociates himself from the situation or experience that is too violent,