Bones and Muscles – How Do We Move?

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1. Bone is a very active tissue. Please explain the pathway of how the bone cells get nutrients and oxygen from the blood vessels using the following terms: Periosteum, endosteum, lacunae, lamellae, canaliculi, perforating canals, osteon, Haversian canal (central canal) and trabeculae. How the bone gets the necessary nutrients and oxygen it needs is through an array of microscopic tubes and chambers. In compact bones, blood vessels pass through the bones periosteum, the membrane surrounding the bone, and the endosteum through perpendicular channels known as the perforating canals. These canals are conjoined with the central canal, also known as the Haversian canal, which runs the length of the bone, and houses the blood vessels and nerve cells. Surrounding the central canal are layers of bone that are often remnants of previous Haversian systems, called lamellae. Inside the layers of the lamellae are small chambers containing osteocytes, or bones cells. These chambers are known as lacunae. Microscopic canals then connect lacunae to one another and link them to nearby blood vessels are called canaliculi. This structural unit, also known as the osteon, is what facilitates the exchange of nutrients and metabolic waste in compact bone. Spongy bone does not have osteons but instead have rods or plates branching out from the lamellae called trabeculae. The exposed surface of the trabuculae is where the canaliculi ends and where nutrients and waste are diffused. 2. In general compare and contrast the three functional classifications of joints according to movement. What are two characteristics that make synovial joints unique and different from other joints? Which joint is stronger-the shoulder or hip joint and why is it? There are three types of joint functional classifications; synarthrosis, amphiarthosis and diarthosis, also referred to as synovial

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