Flat bones provide protection for the internal organs including the brain, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys. The flat bone is made up of two layers of compact bone with a layer of spongy bone in the middle. 3) The epiphyseal plate is located in the metaphysis of the long bones which is found between the epiphysis and diaphysis. The epiphyseal plate is made up of hyaline cartilage. The cartilage makes it possible for the diaphysis to grow in length, thus the epiphyseal plate is also known as the growth plate.
Describe the structure and development of bone and the factors that influence it. Bone is living tissue that makes up the body's skeleton. The bone consists of blood vessels, nerve cells and living bone cells. Bones are made up of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and other minerals, as well as the protein collagen. Calcium is needed to make bones hard, which allows them to support your weight.
The renal capsule is itself surrounded by a mass of fatty tissue that also helps to protect the kidney by damage by cushioning it in cases of impact or sudden movement. Renal cortex: The renal cortex is the outer part of the kidney and has a reddish colour (shown as very pale brown above). It has a smooth texture and is the location of the Bowman's Capsules and the glomeruli, in addition to the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and their associated blood supplies (these structures are part of the k idney nephrons - described in further detail on the page about k idney nephrons). Renal medulla: The renal medulla is the inner part of the kidney. "Medulla" means "inner portion".
Bone tissue structure Bone is hierarchically organized. Zooming in the bone structure (Fig. 4a), we find the osteons or Haversian systems, which are the basic unit of structure of compact bone. Osteons consist of concentrically arranged layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue, that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal, where bone’s blood supplies and nerves can be found (Fig. 4b).
3. Identify, and describe the composition of the bone, joint types and the functions of the skeleton. Bone composition The bones in the human body are living tissue that is made up from numerous cells, protein fibres and minerals (Taylor, 2016). There is considerable variation in the density of bone tissue, with that nearer the surface being more compact. In the centre of most bones is a cavity containing marrow.
There are two parts to this ligament; superior and inferior. Superior acromioclavicular ligament this ligament is a quadrilateral band, covering the superior part of the articulation, and extending between the upper part of the lateral end of the clavicle and the adjoining part of the upper surface of the acromion. Inferior Acromioclavicular Ligament This ligament is somewhat thinner than the preceding, it covers the under part of the articulation, and is attached to the adjoining surfaces of the two bones. The coracoacromial ligament runs from the coracoid process and the acromion. The coracoacromial ligament is a strong triangular band, extending between the coracoid process and the acromion.
First-class; when the muscle force and resistive force is on different sides of the fulcrum e.g. the head resting on the vertebral column. As the head is raised, the facial portion of the skull is the resistance, the fulcrum is between the atlas and occipital bone, and the effort is the contraction of the muscles of the back. Second-class; when the muscle force and resistive force act on the same side of the fulcrum, with the muscle force acting through the level longer than that through which the resistive force acts - e.g. raising the body
In describing the cellular components of skeletal muscle, several specialized terms are used such as the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle is called the sarcolemma; its cytoplasm is known as sarcoplasm; the endoplasmic reticulum is called the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The term motor unit is used to describe a group of muscle fibers innervated by a single motor nerve, the fibers within a single motor unit contract simultaneously (Van and Marleen,2000). Each muscle cell is surrounded by a sarcolemma and has many nuclei occurring at intervals along its length. The nuclei are displaced peripherally within a cross section of the sarcoplasm while a large number of longitudinal myofibrils, groups of arranged contractile proteins, occupy most of the center space(Tortora and Derrickson,2011). Based on nerve stimulation studies, skeletal muscles are divided into two muscle fiber types, the first type is called Slow-twitch muscle fibers which mainly rely on aerobic metabolism.
This part of the capsule is known as the synovial membrane. Synovial fluid may also reduce inflammation by destroying cellular debris by releasing special white blood cells. The glenohumeral joint is composed of three bones; the clavicle, the scapula and the humerus. These three bones make up the shoulder girdle. The head of the humerus is called the glenoid fossa and the cavity of the scapula is called the glenoid cavity, these two fit together to form the glenohumeral joint.
What is a Ligament and how does it work? Ligament is a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone or bone to cartilage and supports and strengthens joints. The main functions of ligaments are to keep the bones of the skeleton in a suitable alignment and prevent abnormal movements of the joints. What is a Tendon and how does it work? A tendon is tissue that connects muscles to bones.