Introduction Patients often require more than a simple patch of bone to be replaced after traumatic injuries, bone resection due to tumors, or complex surgeries in areas such as the hips or knees. With the ability to work with the body’s natural osteogenetic processes; hydroxyapatite (HA) based biomaterials have become an increasingly popular bone grafts substitute. However, this technology is unrealistic since biomaterials manufactured with conventional methods tend to have poor osteoconductive properties and mechanical strength, which limit them to low stress applications. In order to overcome these hindering properties, Dr. Qiang Fu, Dr. Mohamed Rahaman, Dr. B. Bal, and Dr. Roger Brown propose a unique method of synthesizing hydroxyapatite scaffolds in the following research article, Proliferation and Function of MC3T3-E1 Cells on Freeze-Cast Hydroxyapatite Scaffolds with Oriented Pore Architectures. Research discussed in this paper is focused on a new method of scaffolding fabrication which improves upon the microstructure of HA scaffolds.
When working in a microbiology lab, it is important to contain spills and discard materials properly. Describe how a spill should be cleaned up safely in a microbiology lab. (3 pts) Alert people in immediate area. Put on protective equipment. Cover area with disinfectant soaked-paper towels or with dry disinfectant.
It is physiologically essential, as it maintains normal skeleton mass and repairs possible microdamages to the skeleton. The whole procedure occurs in discrete foci, called basic multicellular units (BMUs) (see Fig.6). It starts with a resorption phase which can last up to 4 weeks, where osteoclast (OC) precursors are recruited to the active site from precursors in bone marrow, and excavate a resorption cavity, limited by a border called cement line. Following this excavation, OCs die by apoptosis. After a brief reversal phase, osteoblast (OB) precursors come to the active site and fill the resorption cavity.
In the area of orthopedic implants, particularly total hip joint replacements, a metal plastic combination is the most popular choice. Wear of prosthetic joints, especially total hip prostheses, is a significant clinical problem. The wear products of the implants cause adverse tissue reactions which may lead to substantial loss of bone around the implant and consequently loosening of the fixation. This requires a revision operation, in which the loose prosthesis is replaced with revision prosthesis. However, the revision operations are complicated and expensive, and their results are often poor.
redressing the wound, the area being worked on (in this case the wound from the hysterectomy that reopened) needs to be kept sterile to prevent and foreign objects or any other pathogens getting into the wound. A sterile dressing pack and often sterile gloves can be used. The use of sterile drapes, gloves, instruments and a skin cleanser are used in operating theatres to create this sterile field. (HLTEN506 Learner Resource 2012) Aseptic technique – This technique provides a method for preventing micro-organisms from entering a susceptible site by using sterile equipment and avoiding direct contact with
Removal of Plaster Cast Plaster cast removal is a procedure in itself. The procedure involves risk of injury to patient and should be done with utmost care. Following equipments are necessary for removing a cast * Scissors * Benders * Electric cutter * Materials for washing limb * Supportive bandages or appliances The limb in plaster should be supported by sandbags. As most casts are removed by bivalving down the lateral sides these areas should be easily accessible. The choice of apparatus depends on several factors.
Stage 3 - The sore worsens and extends beneath the skin surface, forming a small crater. There maybe no pain at this stage due to nerve damage. The risk of tissue death and infection are high. Stage 4 - pressure sores progress with extensive damage to deeper tissues (muscles, tendons and bones) serious complications such as osteomyeltis (infection of the bone) or sepis (infection carried through the blood can occur) 2) Identify pressure sites of the body. Common places where pressure sores are likely too develop are, back of head and ears, elbows, lower back and sacrum area, shoulders, hips, heels and inner knees.. 3) Identify factors which might put on individual at risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores.
Introduction Patella fractures are common injuries of knee joint after certain degree of direct trauma. It accounts about 0.5% - 1.5% in all kind of bone fractures (1). The disruption of the extensor mechanism in knee restricts the range of moment of the joint. However, worldwide orthopedic surgeons still face a significant challenge in fixation methods (2). Open reduction and internal fixation is the golden surgical technique for transverse patella fractures.
Anything outside of the mandatory site PPE will be detailed on the work permit. A clean work area is required to make your repair task easier and safer. 3. Describe the hazards associated with carrying out maintenance activities on fluid power equipment (such as handling fluids, stored energy/force, misuse of tools), and how these can be minimised There are various hazards involved with working on fluid power equipment. These include; chemical exposure or contact, pressurized lines, potential area contamination.
Ref: ndt-ed.org The part must be cleaned to remove any excess penetrant or developer. Any spray left on the part can interfere with the next inspection performed on it. 4. What is capillary action? Ref: Lesson #3 The spontaneous elevation or depression of a liquid in fine hair like tubes.