Bonding And Physical Properties

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Title: Bonding and Physical Properties There are three types of chemical bonding- 1. Covalent bonding- simple and giant 2. Ionic bonding 3. Metallic bonding. In this essay I will explain the differences between each of these and how they affect the resulting physical properties of a substance. For example if a substance has a low boiling point and doesn’t conduct electricity, we can tell that it is going to be of simple molecular bonding i.e. covalent. Why Do Atoms Bond? To understand the types of chemical bonding we first need to know why atoms need to bond in the first place. Atoms bond to become electronically more stable. If an atom does not have a full outer shell of electrons, it is said to be “unstable”. These atoms would either need to gain or lose or share electrons with other atoms to complete their outer shells and therefore become “happy” stable atoms. This is known as the “Octet Rule”. Therefore it is the electrons that determine the chemistry of the atom. As a result the atoms either remain as atoms for example, the inert gases or become ions or molecules. The Noble Gases are said to be “inert” gases as these are reluctant to react with other substances as they are already stable atoms with full outer shells and therefore do not need to. Because these gases are monotomic molecules, there are only very weak forces called Van der Waals forces holding the molecules together therefore they have very low melting points and boiling points and are gases at room temperature. Below is the electronic arrangement of Helium, Neon and Argon. (atomic number) As we have seen above, some atoms exist on their own but some exist as diatomic molecules because they are unstable. Examples of these are, Cl2 , Br2, H2, and O2. Sulphur exists as S8 molecules. After bonding occurs with two different elements (an

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