Bonding and Structure Essay

734 WordsNov 18, 20123 Pages
Bonding and structure The Octet Rule:- Under normal conditions, the only elements that can exist as single atoms are the noble gases in group 0 of the periodic table. The atoms of all other elements are bonded together. The Noble gases are unreactive because in the atoms of a noble gas all electrons are paired and the bonding shells are full. This arrangement of electrons is particularly stable and is often referred to as a stable ‘octet’ (as in argon, neon etc.) Apart from Noble Gases, atoms are bonded together. Thus the element oxygen and nitrogen exists as O2 and N2. Compounds exist when atoms of different elements bond together as in CO2, CO and NaCl. In all these examples, electrons have been shared, transferred or rearranged in such a way that the atoms of the elements have acquired a noble gas electron structure. If this creates an outer shell of 8 electrons (as in all these cases), the ‘Octet Rule’ is obeyed. Types of Bonding:- There are different types of bonds that occur between atoms which give rise to different properties. Ionic Bonds:- Ionic Bonds form when electrons are transferred from one atom to another, forming charged Ions which are attracted to each other by Electrostatic Forces. Elements tend to loose or gain electrons, forming Ions, to get a 'full other shell'. Ionically bonded substances, such as Sodium Chloride, can from crystals known as Giant Ionic Lattices with bonds forming a network of connections between atoms. Giant Ionic Lattices have high melting and boiling points since atoms are held together by strong forces. Ionic substances can conduct electricity through the movement of charged Ions. However, they may only do so if the Ions

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