Body Dysmorphic Disorder Essay

2375 WordsSep 26, 201510 Pages
Body Dysmorphic Disorder The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), which provides a diagnostic system for mental health, describes BDD as a preoccupation with a defect in appearance. Three diagnostic criteria are listed for body dysmorphic disorder: (1) a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance (if a slight physical defect is present, the person’s degree of concern is extreme); (2) marked distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning resulting from the appearance preoccupation; and (3) the preoccupation is not attributable to the presence of another psychiatric disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). An individual diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder displays extreme concern about certain body parts on their body. Although the defect may be minor or unnoticeable, individuals concern is excessive and overwhelming. This preoccupation can cause extreme distress and dysfunction in an individual’s mental, social and emotional life. In simpler form, a person diagnosed with body dysmoprhic disorder appears to have an obsession with some type of defect or problem in his or her appearance. Causes The cause of body dysmorphic disorder is yet to be determined. At this time, BDD continues to remain largely unstudied and often overlooked. Although theories exist, further research is required to determine the leading cause of this disorder. For the most part, it is believed that BDD has a psychological, sociocultural and neurobiological influence. From a psychoanalytic perspective, individuals develop an unrealistic sense of self and believe their appearance to be far less attractive than others. This may stem from positive or negative reinforcement and social learning behaviors (observing importance of appearance of caregivers/peers). It is also believed that

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