Blood Bank Case Study

994 WordsDec 31, 20124 Pages
------------------------------------------------- Analytical Toxicology Background In analytical toxicology especially to analyze drugs, several methods can be used. The methods can be categorized base on their principle of assay which are chemical, spectrometric, chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunoassays. Each principle of analysis consists of some techniques that can be used. However, immunoassay is commonly used in drug screening due to sensitivity, specificity and low cost than other methods. The half-life of drug also used in toxicology analysis to helps in therapeutic monitoring and accessing drug abuse. Introduction Immunoassays are bioanalytical method in which the quantitation of analyte depends on the reaction of antigen (analyte) and antibody. (Ibrahim A. Darwish , 2006). Immunoassay principle is based on competitive binding which specific antibody is used to detect the presence of analyte or its metabolite in the sample tested. This method consists of some techniques which include: I. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) II. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) III. Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) IV. Enyzme linked immunoasorbent assay (ELISA) V. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) VI. Cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) I. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) This technique is no longer commonly used due to waste disposal issues where high cost of handling and disposal cost. The analyte in the sample is detected using radioisotope. In RIA, sample is mixed with specific antibody to the target analyte and labeled analyte with radioactive iodine. Analyte in the sample compete with labeled analyte for antibody. Gamma counter is used to measure the labeled analyte bind with antibody per minute (CPM). II. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) EIA is similar to RIA but instead of measuring radioactivity this technique measure enzyme

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