CHAPTER 20 – BLOOD
COMPOSITION OF BLOOD
Whole blood constitutes about 8% of total body weight, Plasma accounts for 55%, and the Formed Elements account for about 45% of the total blood volume.
FORMED ELEMENTS – this term is used to designate the various kinds of blood cells that are normally present in blood. (Platelets, Leukocytes, Erthyrocytes) 45%
PLASMA – is one of the three major body fluids, (Interstitial, and Intracellular fluids) are the other two. 55%
* Albumin (liquid gold) 57%
* Globulins 38%
* Fibrinogen 4% used in coagulation
* Prothrombin 1% used in coagulation
LEUKOCYTE TYPES AND PERCENTAGES
* 60% - Neutrophils – acute bacterial, stress, and fungi
* 30% Lymphocytes - viral
* 8% Monocytes – chronic bacterial
* 2% Eosinophils – allergies & large parasites
* 0% Basophils – Inflammation
60 30 8 2 0 – Never Let My Engine Blow (for Leukocyte type & %)
PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV) – hematocrit, used to describe the volume percent of red blood cells in whole blood.
ANEMIAS – conditions that result in decreased RBC numbers, and characterized by a reduced hematocrit value.
PHYSIOLOGICAL POLYCYTHEMIA (condition of many blood cells) – Healthy individuals who live and work in high altitudes often have elevated RBC numbers and hematocrit values.
ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR) – test for inflammation.
BUFFY COAT – that thin white layer of leukocytes and platelets, present at the interface between the packed red cells and plasma.
RED BLOOD CELLS
ERYTHROCYTE – is unique in the fact, it does not contain ribosomes, mitochondria or other organelles typical of most body cells. It is a red protein pigment, hemoglobin. It accounts for more than 1/3 of the cell volume and is critically important to its primary function.
* In Men – RBC counts average about 5,500,000/mm3
* In Women – RBC counts average about 4,800,000/mm3
FORMATION OF RED BLOOD CELLS
*Starts with the...