Biotechnology Essay

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BTE (homework/exercise) 1. a) Biotechnology: The study of tools from living things, use of technique based on living system to make product or improve other species. b) Morphogenesis: newly produced cell from the division of meristematic cell undergo change and specialization of differentiation. c) Phenotype: visible manifestation of genotype d) Totipotency: the ability of a cell to grow and differentiate into all type of cells tissue present in an organism body 2. The central dogma of molecular biology is the concept that information flow progresses from DNA to RNA to protein but not the reverse. However, current knowledge necessitates a modification of this “old” dogma. The “new” dogma should take into account the fact that an organism’s environment impact when and how some of its genes are expressed and also that more than one protein can be produces by a single gene. 3. Catabolism refers to the breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones. For example, the breakdown of starch into glucose is a catabolic process. Anabolism describes the building of complex molecules from smaller ones. The synthesis of proteins from amino acids is an example of an anabolic reaction. Also note that catabolic reactions release energy (exergonic), whereas anabolic reactions absorb energy (endergonic). 4. When an ovum is released, semen provided by the woman's male partner, or by a sperm donor, is introduced into the woman's vagina or uterus. The semen may be fresh or it may be frozen semen which has been thawed. Where donor sperm is supplied by a sperm bank, it will always be quarantined and frozen and will need to be thawed before use. For vaginal artificial insemination, semen is usually placed in the vagina using a needleless syringe. A longer tube, called a tom cat, may be attached to the end of the syringe to facilitate deposit of

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