The oesophagus extends from the pharynx and behind the trachea to the stomach. It is a muscular tube that uses a series of contractions, known as peristalsis, to push food through into the stomach. The stomach is a hollow organ that has strong muscular walls. It holds food while it is mixed with enzymes and continuing the process of food being broken down into a usable form. The stomach secretes acid and powerful enzymes that continue the process of breaking down food.
It runs down the center of the protective spinal column which runs from the neck to the lower back. The nerves in the spinal cord 8. transmit information from body organs and external stimuli to the brain. It sends information from the Cerebellum Is the area of areas of the body. These transmissions travel in two pathways one
It’s broken down into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of nerves that provide voluntary control over skeletal muscle contraction. The autonomic nervous system consists of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves that provide involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland activity and secretions. One is thought of as the accelerator and the other, the brake; or “fight or flight” and “rest and digest” respectively. The sympathetic nerves increase the heart rate, constrict blood vessels to raise blood pressure, and elicit a “fight or flight” response.
Running Head: OVERVIEW OF MUSCULAR SYSTEM The Anatomy and Physiology of the Muscular System The human body is composed of major organ systems that work together to perform complex body functions (Thibodeau & Patton, 2008). One of these major organ systems is the muscular system. The muscular system produces an endless variety of actions with the help of muscles. Muscles have three primary functions: movement, maintaining body posture and production of body heat (Thibodeau & Patton, 2008). They also aid in internal processes such as the heartbeat and movement of food through the intestines (Parker, 2007).
The brain stem (midbrain pons and medulla oblongata) Controls involuntary reflex actions The cerebellum Maintains posture and co-ordinates movement. It received messages from the cerebrum and muscles and joints The diencephalon (includes the thalamus and hypothalamus Controls homeostatic mechanisms and the autonomic nervous system The cerebrum The largest part of the brain, divided into three areas that control movement, interpret sensory impulses and control of thought, memory, emotions and personality traits Nerves Nerves are compiled of neurons or nerve cells. These cells can vary in structure this depends on two different things: 1. Where they are 2. What they do But all cells have cell body’s containing the nucleus.
Myelin sheath: A protective coating of fat and protein that insulates the axon. List at least one effect of each of the following neurotransmitters: • Acetylcholine: Transmits messages relating to our skeletal muscles. • Glutamate: plays a role in memory. • GABA:
Blood capillaries converge to form venules and then veins. Lymph flows through lymph nodes. f. Describe the lymphatic system role with regard to lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. The lymphatic vessels transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. 2.
The pons connects the medulla with the cerebral cortex. The spinal cord’s neural network is dependent upon the reticular formation’s filtration of irrelevant sensory stimulus. This region relays signals to the thalamus, cerebral
Discuss the importance of teeth in human nutrition Teeth perform mechanical digestion thus increasing the surface area of food for salivary amylase to work and for the enzymes of the stomach and small intestine to work more efficiently 2. Describe how food passes through the esophagus Food is pushed down the esophagus to the stomach through the process of peristalsis. Wave-like contractions alternate between contraction and relaxation to push the food through the entire digestive tract from the esophagus through the stomach, small intestine and large intestine. 3. Why would the enzymes in your mouth not work in your stomach and the enzymes in your stomach not work in your mouth?