At stage 2, the DTM starts to change, with the total population increasing, due to a fall in the death rate and a still high birth rate. This can be seen in many developing countries now, such as Ethiopia, and many others from Africa. The death rate falls due to an increase in the availability and effectiveness of healthcare, and also due to an increase in the mechanisation of work, causing less people to die while working from accidents. The birth rate however remains high, as it takes time for the population to fully realise that less children are dying, and therefore they do not need to have as many children in order to support themselves. Another reason due to the high birth rate in countries such as Ethiopia is the lack of use of contraceptives.
* Pareto Optimality wasn’t obtained because maximum benefits of most wanted goods and services produced at minimum cost of least wanted resources. * They are the duties you believe you owe to other people based upon your rational thought processes. According to Aristotles universal principle of personal virtue they he had done wrong. (p.89) If Dennis was really proud of what he was doing he would be open, honest, and truthful about the practice, informing everyone he
If people are separated from the society they will feel isolated and could lead to depression, anxiety, eating disorders, financial problems and/or health problems. For example of a social class marginalisation is when the high class get the majority of the medication than people who really need it, especially from the low class society. They would feel that it is normal just because they don’t have the money to pay the medication, that’s why most of them just die from untreated sickness. Disempowerment is when an individual or group of people feel less powerful or less confident from others. It might because of their age or gender, age because if you are working in a hospital and you are the youngest among the group the elderly will dominate which make you feel disempowerment.
Figure 2 shows how developing countries such as Ghana and Colombia pay a lot more for their water meaning that a larger proportion of their income is spent on what is seen as the most basic resource. This can mean that for the poorer population water is sometimes unaffordable which puts their health at risk as they may seek water from contaminated sources; diseases like cholera are more likely to spread due to lack of clean water and due to lack of hygiene. Often in countries such as Ghana, the poorer population do not have access to running water in their homes and therefore have to walk long distances to collect water; this also highlights a poor quality of life. Due to high water costs, countries such as these are unable to use water for luxury purposes e.g. dishwashers and therefore water wastage is less likely.
Due to media exposure most of us are to some extent aware of the health disadvantages of Third World populations and their relation to sociological issues like poverty, lack of proper food and nutrition and inadequacies of health care. Yet the average person might not realise and would be shocked to find that vast differences in health outcomes and age expectancy also exist within affluent countries where access to proper nutrition and healthcare is generally taken for granted. In Australia, for example, the average life expectancy for indigenous Australians is between 17-19 years less than for their non-indigenous counterparts (Cunningham & Paradies, 2000, as cited in National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC], 2000), and the incidence of low birth weight amongst babies born to indigenous mothers is up to twice that found amongst non-indigenous births (National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC], 2000). According to the World Health Organisation ([WHO], 2008) such drastic differences in health status seen within a country are unfair and avoidable, and addressing these is not only a matter of social justice but also a human rights obligation (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2005). By focusing on the social determinants of health within a population, i.e.
These new changes in the public health system had a vast effect on the working classes and their health, as they were more likely to contract diseases such as TB due to their poorly ventilated housing and were less likely to have access to clean water and proper sewage systems to remove waste from their homes. As more people began to move into cities, where in 1851 over 50% of the population lived in urban areas, overcrowding and disease became a major problem in Britain. An increase in public health initiatives had a widespread influence on the working class life from home health, food safety, and clean water. There were many health problems that the working class faced exclusively, such as milk for babies. Mothers were more likely to have a job in a working class family, so the mother would have to give the baby bottled milk instead of breast milk, which was very unsafe and not regulated.
Because of this, two-thirds of the patients seen on that day had multiple comorbidities possibly due to lack of preventative care. The report from the GADCH states that individuals without health insurance lag behind the insured population on many dimensions including having decreased rates of preventative care leading to multiple comorbidities resulting in fair to poor health (2007). When this happens, there are more sick days (usually without pay) resulting into lower income for this population that is already struggling to make ends meet. This impacts the entire region’s productivity leading into a cascading effect for rural areas (GADCH,
During 1906 to 1914 the Liberals passed reforms to try and improve the lives of the British people. Booth and Rowntree impacted the way people viewed the poor, they conducted a report which identified two areas of poor. Primary poverty was due to low wage, unemployment, sickness and old age. And secondary poverty was the source of laziness and citizens wasting money by spending it on drink and gambling. When the report was released, people began to see the true extent of poverty and that the British people couldn’t fulfil their basic needs and provide for themselves food, water, clothing and shelter.
Sudden population growth, crowding, and lack of municipal services made urban problems more serious than they had been in the past. Inadequate facilities for sewage disposal, air and water pollution, and diseases made urban life unhealthy and contributed to high infant mortality and short life expectancy (mainly for the poor). 3. Reports of the horrors of slum life led to municipal reforms that began to alleviate the ills of urban life after the mid-nineteenth century. B.
In 1842 Chadwick wrote his Great Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring population. He noticed that people lived in dirty, overcrowded conditions which caused illness, ending in people becoming too sick to work and a higher tax spending on helping them. Due to this Chadwick introduced a set of solutions which would help improve public health, because he suggested that sewers should be improved, refuse should be removed, water provided should be clean and medical officers should be appointed to check each area. This helped because with an improved sewerage system human waste would not be mixed the water supply which would see a fall in cholera and other related diseases. His Great Report helped the introduction of the Public Health Act in 1848.