Biology Paper

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Human vs.________ # of differences in the amino acid sequence Rhesus monkey 0 Horse 3 Donkey 3 Common zebra 3 Pig, cow, sheep 3 Dog 3 Gray whale 3 Rabbit 3 Kangaroo 3 Chicken, turkey 3 Penguin 5 Pekin duck 2 Snapping turtle 3 Rattlesnake 4 Bullfrog 4 Tuna 6 Screwfly fly 9 Silkworm moth 12 Tomato horn worm 13 Wheat 18 Rice 18 Baker’s Yeast 16 Candida Yeast 20 Neurospora 19 Reflection Questions: Summarize your amino acid comparison in paragraph form. To guide your summary, reflect on the following questions. 1. What does it mean when scientists say that living organisms share a universal genetic code? DNA and RNA are the building blocks of amino acids 2. How does a universal genetic code relate to the hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth? DNA is similar to the hypotheses about the origin of life on earth because they both discuss why how life on earth was made. 3. How are self-replicating molecules, such as RNA molecules in the “RNA World” hypothesis, essential to the most popular hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth? The key step to a RNA world is that the molecule can rebuild itself. 4. How might the similarities and differences in genetic codes, or the proteins built as a result of these codes, be used to determine how closely related different species are? They can be related closely by how many amino acid differences humans and other species. 5. Based on the amino acid sequence data for the Cytochome-C protein, chimpanzees and humans share an identical coding sequence. What other species identified on the chart has a coding sequence that is most closely related to the humans and chimpanzees and most distantly related?

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