* Manipulating DNA
* DNA Manipulation
* When changes are made to the sequence of DNA for the purpose of altering and controlling the genotype and phenotype of organisms to meet specific needs.
* Example: Genetically modifying a rainbow trout to be more muscular in an effort to boost the output of fish farms worldwide
* Tools of Molecular Biology
* Genetic Engineering
* Making changes in the DNA code of a living organism, closely resembling DNA manipulation.
* Molecular Biology
* The scientific discipline that seeks to full understand the molecular basis of heredity, genetic variation, and the expression patterns of individual units of heredity called genes. They also study how genes are passed from one generation to the next.
* Molecular biologists have developed different techniques that allow them to study and change DNA molecules.
* DNA Extraction
* DNA Extraction
* Process of separating DNA from cells.
* Cells are opened and the DNA is separated from the other cell parts.
* Cutting DNA
* Restriction Enzymes
* Restriction enzymes or restriction nucleases are enzymes isolated from bacteria that recognize specific sequences in DNA and then cut the DNA to produce fragments, called restriction fragments. These fragments are then combined based on their complementary piece.
* Separating DNA
* Gel Electrophoresis
* This is a way to separate and analyze DNA fragments. Electrophoresis uses an electric current to separate different-sized molecules in a porous gel. This can also be used to compare genomes of different organisms and can be used to identify a particular gene.
* Smaller molecules move more easily in the gel pores than larger molecules
* Reading the Sequence
* Reading a DNA sequence is an automated process.
* Knowing the sequence of an organisms DNA allows...