I chose to do an experiment on ‘How temperature can affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver?’ Temperature affects the “speeds of the molecules, the activation energy of the catalytic reaction and the thermal stability of the enzyme and substrate.” (2) At different levels of temperature the affects on the enzyme in the liver varies. The reason for this is because; “their molecules have low kinetic energy and collisions between them are less frequent.” (2) In other words at low temperatures, enzymes become ‘deactivated’. (2) Whereas on the other hand when the temperature is increased the activity that occurs in the
Investigating Enzyme concentrations and enzyme activity Enzymes are substances that are produced by living organisms that act as biological catalysts that speed up rates of reactions for specific chemical reactions. This occurs by attaching a substrate molecule (the substance that the active site of an Enzyme interacts with) into its highly specific active site. In chemical reactions a certain amount of energy is needed to start the reaction, this is called the activation energy. Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy that is needed to make the reaction happen; this in turn causes the rate of reaction to increase. Certain factors affect the rate of reaction:- Temperature – temperature increase the rate of reaction because the molecules gain kinetic energy and this increases the likelihood of an enzyme and a substrate colliding, subsequently increasing the rate of reaction.
Enzyme has an active site in a specific shape because of its tertiary structure. Enzyme works for binding with substance of a specific shape that fits in it and break down the substance. Enzymes denature due to various factors. The temperature, PH level, and the concentration of the substance influence enzyme activities. When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore.
Microorganisms are classified by their optimum growth temperature. Microorganisms can be classified as psychrophiles, mesophiles, thermophiles, and hyperthermophiles, and each classification has its own set of special characteristics. If a microbes cell is in a solution in which the concentration of solutes is higher than that found in the cell, cellular water passes through the cytoplasmic membrane in the direction of the high solute concentration. During the loss of water, the cytoplasmic membrane collapses away from the cell wall, which is called plasmolysis. Extreme halophiles (sometimes called obligate halophiles) are organisms
Catalase Lab Report Introduction Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reactions that would otherwise happen more slowly. Enzymes work by fitting into certain substrates to lower the energy needed for the process to work. This is similar to the lock and key. The key being the substrate and the lock being the enzyme. If the substrate (key) doesn’t fit it won’t work with the enzyme (lock).
Dependent Variable: The time taken in seconds the enzyme to react at different temperatures. This is because the temperature of the enzyme is reacting at will either make the enzyme reacts faster or slower. The rate of digestion will be calculated by 1/t (sec-1) Controlled Variables: concentration of enzyme (3 ml lipase) X nextag shop; Lipase Concentrate-HP 90 UltraCaps - Integrative Therapeutics; $24 (http://www.nextag.com/enzyme-lipase/compare-html) concentration of substrate (3 ml cooking oil) concentration of inhibitor (1 ml bile salt) All of these are fixed so that it does not affect the reaction. Introduction: Proteins that are made up of long chains of amino acids are called enzymes. These enzymes act as catalysts in chemical reactions which decreases the activation required for the reaction and consequently
The enzyme of this experiment was the yeast Peroxidase and the substrate of the experiment was hydrogen peroxide which was diluted by water. Hydrogen peroxide is toxis to most living organisms. Many organisms are capable of enzymatically destroying the hydrogen peroxide before it can do much damage. Hydrogen peroxide can be converted to oxygen and water (Masterman, David, and Kelly Redding). In the experiment, the rate of enzyme activity under various conditions such as different enzyme concentrations, pH values, and temperatures will be measured.
Investigation of the effect of Substrate concentration on Catalase activity Research Question: To investigate enzyme kinetics, using catalase enzyme from the yeast extract. Background Information: Enzymes are proteins which catalyze reactions that take place in the body or they increase the rate of the biological reactions. In an enzyme catalyzed reaction, the substrate binds to the active site and forms the enzyme-substrate complex with the enzyme. The enzyme breaks the bonds present in the substrate; the final product of this reaction leaves the enzyme which remains unchanged after the reaction. Catalase is a substance which is produced by the liver to break down hydrogen peroxide.
Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site. This is to allow connection between the enzyme and other molecules called substrates. The shape and chemical makeup of the active site provides an area for part of the substrate to connect with the enzyme. (Farabee, 2010) Part of the active site holds the substrate and part catalyzes the reaction. Some enzymes act on one substrate only, while other enzymes act on a family of related molecules.
Effects of Volume on Enzyme Activity Biology 103 Second Spring Semester Introduction Enzymes are biological catalysts that catalysis biochemical reactions in living calls. The purpose of a catalyst is to decrease the activation energy required for a reaction to happen naturally. Enzymes increase the reaction rate by molecules by two hundred million times faster opposed to if there no enzyme present. During a catalyzed reaction, a substrate binds to an active site which in-turn forms an enzyme-substrate complex. This is where the reactions occurs.